History and Citizenship Education, Secondary IV

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Official power and countervailing powers

In Québec today, the government exercises power through the National Assembly. From New France to the present, interest groups have influenced the decisions of the state and helped transform society. These groups, which have their roots in civil society, defend both public and private interests. The designated focus for the study of the social phenomenon Official power and countervailing powers is The relationship between interest groups and official power, from the French régime to the present.

The concepts prescribed by the program are not explained by means of specific statements. It is through the appropriate use of knowledge related to the social phenomenon studied that students develop their understanding of the following concepts: influence, institution, interest, issue, power, rights, society, state, territory.

The table below shows how some historical knowledge has been reorganized.

British rule

Program

Reorganization Progression of learning
  • Relations between Church and state
This element of knowledge, originally associated with the social phenomenon Demands and struggles in the British colony, has been moved to Secondary IV.

Secondary IV:
Official power and countervailing powers

  1. Power relations between Church and state
  • Power relations between the legislative assembly and the governor
  • Power relations between the Patriotes and the governor
  • Power relations between the Reformers and the governor

Elements of knowledge included in Section 3.

Secondary IV:
Official power and countervailing powers

  1. Power relations between the legislative assembly and the governor
  • Relations with the Native peoples
This element of knowledge, originally associated with the social phenomenon The change of empire, has been moved to Secondary IV.

Secondary IV:
Official power and countervailing powers

  1. Power relations between the Native peoples and the British authorities

Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.

Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.

 

Student reinvests knowledge.

3
The figure 3 indicates that some knowledge related to this learning was addressed in Secondary III.
Year
3 4
Official power and countervailing powers in Québec today
    1. Names the institution that exercises legislative power in Québec’s political structure: the National Assembly
 
    1. Identifies interest groups in Québec society (e.g. unions, environmental groups, feminist movement groups)
 
    1. Indicates means used by interest groups to defend their demands (e.g. use of media placement, organization of demonstrations, exercise of the right to strike, participation in parliamentary committee hearings)
 
    1. Indicates subjects of debate between interest groups and official power (e.g. fiscal policies, the environment, union demands)
 
  1. French régime
    1608-1760
Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.
3
The figure 3 indicates that some knowledge related to this learning was addressed in Secondary III.
Year
3 4
  1. Power relations between the Amerindians and the administrators of the colony
    1. Identifies players who embody power relations between the Amerindians and the administrators of the colony (e.g. governors, the Innu, the Iroquois)
 
    1. Indicates demands made by Amerindians (e.g. military support against their enemies, European products, especially rifles)
 
    1. Indicates means used by Amerindians to influence the decisions of the colonial administrators (e.g. declare war, supply furs)
 
    1. Indicates effects of power relations between the administrators of the colony and the Amerindians (e.g. Champlain’s expedition against the Iroquois on the rivière Richelieu, signing of the Great Peace of Montréal, French use of Amerindian customs in diplomacy, ongoing military presence in the territory of the colony)
 
  1. Power relations between the administrators of the colony and the mother country
    1. Identifies players who embody power relations between the administrators of the colony and the mother country (e.g. Company of One Hundred Associates, Talon, the Minister of the Marine)
 
    1. Indicates demands made by the administrators of the colony: financial resources, military resources
 
    1. Indicates the main means used by the administrators of the colony to influence the decisions of the mother country: exchange correspondence, draft briefs
 
    1. Indicates effects of power relations between the administrators of the colony and the mother country (e.g. publication of orders and edicts, submission to French authority in the colony, little economic diversification in the colony)
 
  1. Power relations between Church and state
    1. Identifies players who embody power relations between Church and state (e.g. king, Monseigneur de Laval, Frontenac)
 
    1. Indicates one demand made by the Church: prohibition on trading alcohol
 
    1. Indicates means used by the Church to influence the decisions of the state (e.g. complaining to the king about the actions of some governors, making a commitment to convert more Amerindians)
 
    1. Indicates effects of the power relations between the Church and the state (e.g. alliance to impose public order in the colony, revocation of governors D’Avaugour and Frontenac, prohibition on performing Molière’s comedy Tartuffe, granting of seigneuries to religious communities)
 
  1. British rule
    1760-1867
Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.
3
The figure 3 indicates that some knowledge related to this learning was addressed in Secondary III.
Year
3 4
  1. Power relations between Church and state
    1. Identifies players who embody power relations between the Church and the state: king, bishops, governors
 
    1. Indicates demands made by the Church: appointment of a Catholic bishop, collection of tithes
 
    1. Indicates the means used by the Church to influence the decisions of the state: submitting requests to the king
 
    1. Indicates effects of the power relations between the Church and the state (e.g. appointment of a Superintendant of the Catholic Church in Canada; suggestion by Monseigneur Lartigue that the population of Lower Canada should submit to British authority during the Rebellions)
 
  1. Power relations between British merchants in the colony and the governor
    1. Identifies players who embody power relations between British merchants in the colony and the governor: the king, Governor Murray, Montrealers, members of the legislative assembly
 
    1. Indicates demands made by British merchants: discontinuation of the concessions made to the Canadiens by the first governors, restoration of Habeas corpus, abolition of taxes on trade
 
    1. Indicates means used by British merchants to influence the decisions of the governor (e.g. writing petitions, writing to opinion journals such as the Quebec Mercury and the Montreal Gazette)
 
    1. Indicates effects of the power relations between British merchants and the governor (e.g. maintenance of taxes on trade, recall of Governor Murray by London)
 
  1. Power relations between the legislative assembly and the governor
    1. Identifies players who embody power relations between the legislative assembly and the governor: Papineau, Gosford, W. L. Mackenzie, Elgin, members of the assembly, political parties such as the Parti canadien, the Tory Party, the Parti patriote
 
    1. Indicates demands made by the Patriotes and Reformers: responsible government, control over the budget, election of members of the legislative council
3
    1. Indicates means used by the legislative assembly to influence the decisions of the governor: adopting a resolution on the free choice of language when tabling bills, adopting the 92 Resolutions, refusing to pass the budget
 
    1. Indicates means used by the Patriotes and Reformers to influence the decisions of the governor: asking the population to boycott British products, forming an alliance with Reformers in Upper Canada, organizing public assemblies
 
    1. Indicates effects of the power relations between the legislative assembly and the governor (e.g. dissolution of the legislative assembly, application of responsible government)
 
    1. Indicates effects of the power relations between the Patriotes, the Reformers and the governor (e.g. closing of opinion journals, the Rebellions, intervention by the army, the hanging of Patriotes, the call to Baldwin and Lafontaine to form a government)
 
  1. Power relations between the Native peoples and the British authorities
    1. Identifies players who embody power relations between the Amerindians and the British authorities (e.g. Pontiac, Le Grand Sauteux, Amherst, Governor Murray)
 
    1. Indicates Amerindian demands (e.g. financial compensation for lost territory, recognition of their rights)
 
    1. Indicates the main means used by the Amerindians to influence the decisions of the British authorities after the Treaty of Paris (1763): revolting
 
    1. Indicates effects of the power relations between the Amerindians and the British authorities (e.g. the establishment of a policy of assimilation starting in 1830, the creation of reserves)
 
  1. Contemporary period
    1867 to the present
Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.
3
The figure 3 indicates that some knowledge related to this learning was addressed in Secondary III.
Year
3 4
  1. Power relations between Church and state
    1. Identifies players who embody power relations between Church and state (e.g. Monseigneur Laflèche, Boucher de Boucherville, the Duplessis government,  Frère Untel [Jean-Paul Desbiens])
 
    1. Indicates demands made by the Church (e.g. the colonization of new regions, amendments to the bill concerning the creation of a department of education)
 
    1. Indicates means used by the Church to influence decisions by the state (e.g. found Catholic unions, support strikers in some circumstances)
 
    1. Indicates effects of power relations between the Church and the state (e.g. the colonization of new regions, the refusal to give women the right to vote)
 
  1. Power relations between financial circles and the state
    1. Identifies players who embody power relations between financial circles and the state (e.g. the Canadian Pacific Railway, J. A. Macdonald, electricity trusts)
 
    1. Indicates demands made by financial circles (e.g. income tax reductions, subsidies, easing of regulations)
 
    1. Indicates means used by financial circles to influence decisions by the state (e.g. contributing, at certain times, to the funding of political parties, constituting lobby groups)
 
    1. Indicates effects of power relations between financial circles and the state (e.g. nationalization of hydroelectric companies, creation of Crown corporations for economic purposes, passage of the Act to govern the financing of political parties)
 
  1. Power relations between Native peoples and the state
    1. Identifies players who embody power relations between Native peoples and the state (e.g. Riel, the Assembly of First Nations of Québec and Labrador, the governments of Canada and Québec)
 
    1. Indicates demands made by the Native peoples (e.g. respect for Native and treaty rights, political autonomy)
 
    1. Indicates means used by the Native peoples to influence decisions by the state (e.g. forming a provisional government at Red River, addressing protests to the United Nations, breaching the peace)
 
    1. Indicates effects of power relations between the Native peoples and the state (e.g. the hanging of Riel and eight Amerindians, the end of the official policy of assimilation, the signing of the James Bay and Northern Québec Agreement)
 
    1. Indicates the principles of the Paix des Braves, signed by the Cree people and the Québec government (e.g. partnership based on trust and mutual respect for land development, compliance with the principles of sustainable development and the traditional lifestyle)
 
  1. Power relations between unions and the state
    1. Identifies players who embody power relations between unions and the state (e.g. the Knights of Labour, Monseigneur Charbonneau, the Confédération des travailleurs catholiques du Canada/ Canadian Catholic Confederation of Labour, labour confederations)
 
    1. Indicates demands made by the union movements (e.g. prohibition of child labour, deduction of union dues at source, reconciliation of work and family life)
3
    1. Indicates means used by union movements to influence decisions by the state (e.g. testifying before the Royal Commission on the Relations of Labor and Capital, forming a common front, publishing the Manifeste des grévistes)
 
    1. Indicates effects of power relations between union movements and the state (e.g. recognition of labour associations, intervention by the provincial police during labour conflicts, passage of the Act respecting labour standards)
3
  1. Power relations between feminist groups and the state
    1. Identifies players who embody power relations between feminist groups and the state (e.g. suffragettes, the Fédération des femmes du Québec, Éva Circé-Côté, Adélard Godbout)
 
    1. Indicates demands made by the feminist groups (e.g. right to vote, implementation of a public daycare policy)
3
    1. Indicates means used by feminist groups to influence decisions by the state (e.g. calling for a strike at Dupuis Frères (1952), organizing the march Du pain et des roses)
 
    1. Indicates effects of power relations between feminist groups and the state (e.g. passage of the Women’s Minimum Wage Act, appointment of women to the boards of directors of Crown corporations, introduction of provisions on maternity leave into the Act respecting labour standards)
3
  1. Power relations between the media and the state
    1. Identifies players who embody power relations between the media and the state (e.g. André Laurendeau, L’Action catholique, Claude Ryan, The Gazette)
 
    1. Indicates the main roles played by the media: informing the population, conducting investigations
 
    1. Indicates demands made by the media (e.g. access to government information, protection of sources of information)
 
    1. Indicates means used by the media to influence decisions by the state (e.g. maintaining a presence in the press gallery, broadcasting reports)
 
    1. Indicates effects of power relations between the media and the state (e.g. passage of legislation on censorship, recognition of freedom of the press, passage of the Act respecting access to documents held by public bodies and the protection of personal information)
 
  1. Power relations between linguistic groups and the state
    1. Identifies players who embody power relations between linguistic groups and the state (e.g. the Société Saint-Jean-Baptiste, Alliance Québec, the governments of Canada and Québec)
 
    1. Indicates demands made by linguistic groups (e.g. recognition of the primacy of the French language in Québec, amendments to the rules for commercial signs)
 
    1. Indicates means used by linguistic groups to influence decisions by the state (e.g. challenging sections of language laws, organizing demonstrations, taking cases to court)
 
    1. Indicates effects of power relations between linguistic groups and the state (e.g. creation of the Office de la langue française, imposition of a percentage of French-language content for radio and TV broadcasts, passage of language laws)
 
  1. Power relations between nationalist movements and the state
    1. Identifies players who embody power relations between nationalist movements and the state (e.g. the Ligue pour la défense du Canada, Henri Bourassa, René Lévesque, Trudeau)
 
    1. Indicates demands made by nationalist movements (e.g. a change in the political status of Québec, passage of laws to protect the French language)
 
    1. Indicates means used by nationalist movements to influence decisions by the state (e.g. organizing Les États généraux du Canada français, founding political parties, organizing demonstrations)
 
    1. Indicates effects of power relations between nationalist movements and the state (e.g. the holding of a plebiscite on conscription for service overseas, application of the War Measures Act during the October Crisis, the holding of referendums, passage of the Clarity Act)
 
  1. Power relations between environmentalist groups and the state
    1. Identifies players who embody power relations between environmentalist groups and the state (e.g. Frédéric Back, the Regroupement des conseils régionaux de l’environment, the Assembly of First Nations of Québec and Labrador)
 
    1. Indicates demands made by environmentalist groups (e.g. protection of fauna and flora, ratification of and compliance with international agreements)
 
    1. Indicates means used by environmental groups to influence decisions by the state (e.g. orchestrating media events, participating in international summits, founding a political party)
 
    1. Indicates effects of power relations between environmental groups and the state (e.g. adoption of regulations to protect the environment, organization of awareness-raising campaigns, creation of Québec’s Ministère de l’Environnement)
 
  1. Power relations between movements for social justice and the state
    1. Identifies players who embody power relations between movements for social justice and the state (e.g. the Church, the École sociale populaire, community groups, municipalities)
 
    1. Indicates demands made by movements for social justice (e.g. fair distribution of wealth, social housing programs)
 
    1. Indicates means used by movements for social justice to influence decisions by the state (e.g. publishing the Programme de restauration sociale, organizing demonstrations, drafting petitions)
 
    1. Indicates effects of power relations between movements for social justice and the state (e.g. establishment of social solidarity programs, construction of social housing)
 
  1. Federal-provincial power relations
    1. Identifies players who embody federal-provincial power relations (e.g. the Parti national led by Honoré Mercier, Trudeau, René Lévesque, the Bélanger-Campeau Commission)
 
    1. Indicates demands made by the provinces (e.g. respect for areas of jurisdiction, changes to the equalization system)
 
    1. Indicates means used by the provinces to influence the decisions of the federal government (e.g. holding interprovincial conferences, launching negotiations, signing agreements, taking part in federal-provincial meetings such as the Victoria Conference)
 
    1. Indicates effects of power relations between the provinces and the federal government (e.g. overlapping of certain programs, instances of federal intervention in areas of provincial jurisdiction)
 
Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.
3
The figure 3 indicates that some knowledge related to this learning was addressed in Secondary III.
Year
3 4
Particular interests and the common interest in social choices in Québec today
    1. Indicates the main means used by the state to intervene in public life: passing legislation, controlling public expenditure, collecting taxes
 
    1. Identifies interest groups that promote particular interests in Québec (e.g. financial circles, environmental groups, union organizations, employers’ associations)
 
    1. Indicates demands of interest groups affected by state intervention in areas of public life (e.g. passage of laws and regulations, granting of funding)
 

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