History and Citizenship Education, Secondary IV

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Population and settlement

The oldest traces of human presence in Québec date from about 10 000 B.C.1 Settlement is a process by which human beings occupy a space, adapt it to their needs and, over time, confer on it a particular meaning and organization. Successive waves of immigration, together with natural growth, have shaped the demographic landscape of Québec and the settlement of its territory. The designated focus for the study of the social phenomenon Population and settlement is The effects of natural population change and migration on the formation of the population and the settlement of the territory, from the first occupants2 to the present.

The concepts prescribed in the program are not explained by means of specific statements. It is through the appropriate use of knowledge related to a social phenomenon that students develop their understanding of the following concepts: belonging, growth, identity, issue, migration, pluriculturality, population, society, territory.

The table below shows how some historical knowledge has been reorganized.

First occupants

Program

Reorganization Progression of learning
  • Migration flows
This element of knowledge, originally associated with the social phenomenon The first occupants, has been moved to Secondary IV.

Secondary IV:
Population and settlement

  • 1.1. Migrations
  • Organization and settlement of the territory
This element of knowledge, originally associated with the social phenomenon Population and settlement, is now associated with the social phenomenon Economy and development.

Secondary IV:
Economy and development

1.2. Effects of economic activity on the organization of the society and the territory
  • Settlement of northeastern America
This element of knowledge is considered in detail in Section 1.1.

Secondary IV:
Population and settlement

  • 1.1. Migrations
French régime

Program

Reorganization Progression of learning
  • Seigneurial system
This element of knowledge, originally associated with the social phenomenon The emergence of a society in New France, has been moved to Secondary IV.

Secondary IV:
Population and settlement

  • 3.3. Organization of the territory
  • Organization and settlement of the territory
The element of knowledge “Settlement of the territory” is considered in detail in the section French territory in North America.

Secondary IV:
Population and settlement

  • 3.1. Territory possessed
  • 3.2. Territory occupied
  • 3.3. Organization of the territory
British rule

Program

Reorganization Progression of learning
  • Migration flows
This element of knowledge, originally associated with the social phenomenon The change of empire, has been moved to Secondary IV.

Secondary IV:
Population and settlement

  • 2. Migration flows
  • Policies to promote immigration
This element of knowledge is considered in detail in Section 2.

Secondary IV:
Population and settlement

  • 2. Migration flows
Contemporary period

Program

Reorganization Progression of learning
  • Policies to promote immigration
This element of knowledge is considered in detail in Section 2.3.

Secondary IV:
Population and settlement

  • 2.3. Measures taken by the state
  • Demographic trends
This element of knowledge, originally associated with the social phenomenon The modernization of Québec society, has been moved to Secondary IV.

Secondary IV:
Population and settlement

  • 1. Demography
  • 2. Migration flows
  • 3. Effects of migration flows

Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.

Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.

 

Student reinvests knowledge.

3
The figure 3 indicates that some knowledge related to this learning was addressed in Secondary III.
Year
3 4
Population and settlement in Québec today
    1. Indicates the approximate number of inhabitants3 and the composition of Québec’s population
 
    1. Describes Québec’s demographic situation: low natural growth, aging population, increased immigration
 
    1. Indicates government measures to promote population increase (e.g. public daycare system, parental insurance plan, immigration policy)
 
    1. Indicates effects of the aging of Québec’s population since the end of the 20th century (e.g. labour scarcity in some sectors, increased costs in the health sector)
 
  1. First occupants
    around 1500
Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.
3
The figure 3 indicates that some knowledge related to this learning was addressed in Secondary III.
Year
3 4
  1. Demography
  • 1.1.   Migrations
    1. Describes, using the Asian migration theory, the migration flows4 that led to the settlement of northeastern America by the first occupants: nomads from Asia crossed the Bering Strait
 
  1. Territory
  • 2.1.  Occupation
    1. Identifies groups belonging to each language family (e.g. the Huron, the Mohawk and the Iroquois in the Iroquoian family; the Maliseet, the Abenaki and the Innu in the Algonquian family)
 
  • 2.2.   Organization
    1. Describes how groups of nomadic Amerindians organized their territory (e.g. among the Innu, a camp of wigwams was set up on hunting grounds)
 
    1. Describes how groups of sedentary Amerindians organized their territory (e.g. among the Huron, the village was made up of longhouses and surrounded by a palisade)
 
  1. French régime
    1608-1760
Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.
3
The figure 3 indicates that some knowledge related to this learning was addressed in Secondary III.
Year
3 4
  1. Demography
  • 1.1.   Approximate number of inhabitants and composition of the population
    1. Indicates the approximate number of inhabitants and the composition of the population in the St. Lawrence Valley around 1663: a population of roughly 3 000 inhabitants, mainly male and of French origin, and Native population
 
    1. Indicates the approximate number of inhabitants and the composition of the population in the St. Lawrence Valley around 1760: a mixed population consisting of roughly 65 000 Canadiens and French subjects, a population consisting of Amerindians and Blacks, some Amerindians and Blacks being slaves
 
  • 1.2.   Population growth
    1. Indicates the main measures taken by the state to settle the colony between 1666 and 1672: sending the Filles du Roy, granting land to engagés and soldiers, encouraging marriage and large families
3
    1. Indicates results of policies encouraging immigration and large families implemented by the state between 1666 and 1672: increase in the number of women, doubling of the population
 
    1. Indicates the main factor in the growth of the population of New France between 1672 and 1760: natural growth
 
  1. Effects of the European presence on the Amerindians
  • 2.1.   On the population
    1. Indicates effects of the presence of the French on the Amerindian population: mixed births, the spread of disease, sedentarization
 
  • 2.2.   On the territory
    1. Indicates effects of the presence of the French on the territory occupied by Amerindians: establishment of missions, construction of forts
 
  1. French territory in North America
  • 3.1.   Territory possessed
    1. Locates on a map of eastern North America the territory possessed by France in 1663
 
    1. Locates on a map of eastern North America the territory possessed by France after the Treaty of Utrecht
 
  • 3.2.   Territory occupied
    1. Locates on a map of eastern North America the territory occupied by the French in 1663
 
    1. Locates on a map of eastern North America the territory occupied by the Canadiens and the French after the Treaty of Utrecht
 
  • 3.3.   Organization of the territory
    1. Indicates the mode of territorial organization used in New France: the seigneurial system
 
    1. Describes the mode of land division used in New France: range roads, rectangular plots at right-angles to a watercourse
 
    1. Indicates basic elements of a seigneury (e.g. land belonging to the fabrique [parish corporation], censives, manor house)
 
  1. British rule
    1760-1867
Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.
3
The figure 3 indicates that some knowledge related to this learning was addressed in Secondary III.
Year
3 4
  1. Demography
  • 1.1.   Approximate number of inhabitants and composition of the population
    1. Indicates the approximate number of inhabitants and the composition of the population after the Treaty of Paris (1763): a population of roughly 65 000 inhabitants, consisting overwhelmingly of Canadiens, a minority of British subjects, a population of Amerindians and Blacks, some Amerindians and Blacks being slaves
 
    1. Indicates the approximate number of inhabitants and the composition of the population after the Constitutional Act: a population of roughly 160 000 inhabitants, consisting mainly of Canadiens, a minority of British subjects, a population of Amerindians and Blacks, some Amerindians and Blacks being slaves
 
    1. Indicates the approximate number of inhabitants and the composition of the population after the Act of Union: a population of roughly 665 400 inhabitants, consisting mainly of Francophones, a growing Anglophone minority, Amerindians and Blacks
 
  • 1.2.   Population growth
    1. Indicates the main population growth factor in the Province of Quebec during the second half of the 18th century: natural growth
 
    1. Indicates the main population growth factors during the first half of the 19th century: natural growth in Lower Canada / Canada East, immigration in Upper Canada / Canada West
 
  1. Migration flows
  • 2.1.   Immigration of British subjects
    1. Indicates reasons for immigration: attractiveness of the fur trade after the Conquest, difficult social and economic conditions in Great Britain, famine in Ireland
 
    1. Indicates the conditions that promoted immigration (e.g. free land grants in the early 19th century, appointment of an immigration agent in Québec City, management of land by the British American Land Company)
 
    1. Names places where immigrants settled after the Conquest and during the first half of the 19th century: St. Lawrence Valley after the Conquest; Eastern Townships and Upper Canada during the first half of the 19th century
 
  • 2.2.   Immigration of Loyalists
    1. Indicates the main factors underlying the immigration of Loyalists: loyalty to the British Crown, fear of reprisal
 
    1. Names places where Loyalists settled (e.g. New Brunswick, Upper Canada)
 
  • 2.3.   Emigration of French Canadians
    1. Indicates the main factors underlying the emigration of French Canadians to the United States beginning in 1830: the scarcity of agricultural land in the seigneuries, the existence of job prospects in New England factories
 
    1. Names places where French Canadian migrants settled beginning in 1830 (e.g. Massachusetts, Maine, areas of internal colonization such as the Mauricie, the Saguenay, the Laurentians)
 
  1. Effects of migration flows
  • 3.1.  On the society
    1. Indicates effects on the colony of transatlantic crossing conditions of British immigrants: the spread of disease, compulsory quarantine at the Grosse-Île
 
    1. Indicates the change observed in the linguistic composition of the population of Montréal around 1845: the Anglophone population became the majority
 
    1. Indicates the findings of the 1851 census: the population of Canada East was smaller than that of Canada West
 
  • 3.2.   On the territory
    1. Indicates effects of British and Loyalist immigration in the colony: construction of Protestant churches and English schools, township development, division of the Province of Quebec into Lower Canada and Upper Canada
 
    1. Names regions that were settled by migrants from overcrowded holdings in Lower Canada in the early 19th century (e.g. Outaouais, Mauricie)
 
  1. Amerindian population
4.1. Approximate number of inhabitants and composition of the Amerindian population in the St. Lawrence Valley around 1800
    1. Indicates the approximate number of inhabitants and the composition of the Amerindian population in the St. Lawrence Valley around 1800: a population of roughly 5 000 Algonquians and Iroquoians
 
  • 4.2.  Effects of immigration on the Amerindians
    1. Indicates effects of the arrival of immigrants and French-Canadian migrants on the Amerindian population during the first half of the 19th century (e.g. reduction in the size of hunting and fishing territories, acculturation)
 
  1. Contemporary period
    1867 to the present
Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.
3
The figure 3 indicates that some knowledge related to this learning was addressed in Secondary III.
Year
3 4
  1. Demography
  • 1.1.   Approximate number of inhabitants and composition of the population
    1. Indicates the approximate number of inhabitants of Québec
      • around 1901: 1.7 million inhabitants
      • around 1961: 5 million inhabitants
      • around 2006: 7.6 million inhabitants
 
    1. Indicates the composition of the population of Québec
      • around 1901: a majority of French Canadians, a minority of English Canadians, a small proportion of Native people and people of other origins
      • around 1961: a majority of Francophones, a minority of Anglophones, a small proportion of Allophones
      • around 2006: a majority of Francophones, a minority of Allophones, a small proportion of Anglophones
 
  • 1.2.   Population growth
    1. Indicates the factors that contributed to population growth in Québec during the 20th century: natural growth, immigration
 
    1. Names the period of strong population growth that began after the Second World War and ended in the early 1960s: the baby boom
 
  1. Migration flows
  • 2.1.   Immigration
    1. Indicates factors that contribute to migration flows (e.g. improvement of socio-economic conditions, flight from political regimes, family reunification)
 
    1. Names the countries or regions of origin of the main immigrant groups in Québec in the second half of the 19th century and the second half of the 20th century (e.g. Great Britain and the United States in the second half of the 19th century; the Balkans, Haiti and Southeast Asia in the second half of the 20th century)
 
  • 2.2.   Emigration of French Canadians
    1. Indicates the main factors contributing to the emigration of French Canadians to the United States in the second half of the 19th century: the scarcity of agricultural land, the existence of job prospects in New England factories
 
    1. Names places where French Canadian migrants settled in the second half of the 19th century (e.g.  Massachusetts, Maine, areas of internal colonization such as the Mauricie, the Saguenay, the Laurentians)
 
    1. Indicates the effect of French Canadian emigration to the United States on Québec’s population in the second half of the 19th century: net migration was negative
 
  • 2.3.  Measures taken by the state
    1. Indicates measures regarding immigration implemented by the Canadian government in the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century (e.g. free land in Western Canada; the Chinese Immigration Act)
 
    1. Indicates the main measure implemented by the Québec government to halt the emigration of French Canadians to the United States during the second half of the 19th century: the opening of new areas of colonization
 
    1. Indicates provisions of Canada’s 1952 Immigration Act (e.g. preference given to immigrants from Western European countries and the United States, discrimination against Blacks, Asians and homosexuals)
 
    1. Indicates measures implemented by the Québec government in the area of immigration since the creation of Québec’s Department of Immigration (e.g. establishment of selection criteria, such as knowledge of French, creation of reception services and linguistic and cultural integration services)
 
    1. Names the main categories of immigrants recognized by Canada’s 1976 Immigration Act:  family class immigrants, who receive financial support from relatives, refugees
 
    1. Indicates provisions of Canada’s 2001 Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (e.g. broadening of the powers of the immigration services regarding permanent residents who may present a threat to security, tightening the conditions for obtaining refugee status)
 
  1. Effects of migration flows
  • 3.1.   On the society
    1. Indicates effects of immigration on Québec society at the end of the 20th century (e.g. presence of various religious denominations, spread of ethnic art)
 
  • 3.2.   On the territory
    1. Indicates effects of immigration on Québec’s territory at the end of the 20th century: development of ethnic neighbourhoods in some cities, opening of businesses managed by members of cultural communities, establishment of places of worship
 
  1. Cities and regions
  • 4.1.  Urbanization
    1. Indicates the relative proportion of urban and rural population in Québec
      • in 1901: urban population smaller than the rural population
      • in 1931: urban population slightly larger than the rural population
      • in 2001: urban population much larger than the rural population
 
    1. Indicates the main factors contributing to the increase in Québec’s urban population between 1851 and 1901: job openings in factories, the establishment of immigrants
 
    1. Indicates factors contributing to the increase in Québec’s urban population in 2001 (e.g. settlement of immigrants, concentration of specialized services, diversified cultural life)
 
    1. Indicates effects of the increase in the urban population on the society and the territory since the early 20th century (e.g. urban sprawl, the development of transportation infrastructure, the construction of shopping centres)
 
    1. Indicates means used by the Québec government and municipalities to improve living conditions in urban areas since the early 20th century (e.g. dissemination of information on hygiene and public health, vaccination campaigns, construction of water supply and sewage systems)
 
  • 4.2.  Regional growth and decline
    1. Indicates effects of the development of certain regions on the society and the territory (e.g. changes in the Native way of life, division of land into townships)
 
    1. Indicates factors that contributed to a population decline in certain regions after 1970: business closures, reduction in services, attraction of urban poles
 
  1. Relations with the Native peoples
  • 5.1.  Effects of immigration on Native populations
    1. Indicates effects of immigration on the social and territorial organization of the Métis and Amerindians in Western Canada (e.g. changes in their way of life, reduction in the size of hunting and fishing territories)
 
    1. Indicates reactions of the Métis and some Native peoples following the failure of the 1869 uprising against the federal government: migration to northwestern Canada and the United States; demands for the signature of treaties concerning land occupation
 
Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.
3
The figure 3 indicates that some knowledge related to this learning was addressed in Secondary III.
Year
3 4
Diversity of social identities and sense of belonging to Québec society today
    1. Indicates elements of membership in a society (e.g. language, religion, ethnic or national origin)
 
    1. Names communities that share elements of identity with Québec society (e.g. Abenaki, Haitian, Vietnamese communities)
 
    1. Indicates values shared by Québec citizens (e.g. the French language, democracy, human rights and freedoms)
 
1.  According to archaeological research by the École de fouilles préhistoriques of the Université de Montréal’s anthropology department, the human presence in the Lac Mégantic region dates from the early Paleo-Indian period.
2.  The first occupants were the Amerindians and Inuit.
3.  The quantitative data do not constitute knowledge to be acquired, but information used to make a comparison. They are provided for comparative purposes.
4.  According to the current state of knowledge.

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