History and Citizenship Education, Secondary III

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The emergence of a society in New France

The context in which a new society emerged in New France was marked by a race between various European powers to conquer territories in order to increase their wealth and prestige. Although the search for a new route to Asia was still a concern, exploration gave way to colonization. France followed the trend and began to establish its influence in North America, relying on chartered companies and the Catholic Church. Despite their sometimes divergent interests, the chartered companies, the state and the Church contributed to the establishment of a new society in New France, shaped by their colonization programs. The designated focus for the study of the social phenomenon The emergence of a society in New France is The impact of the colonization programs on the organization of this society and its territory.

The concepts prescribed by the program are not explained by means of specific statements. It is through the appropriate use of historical knowledge related to the social phenomenon studied that students develop their understanding of the following concepts: Canadien, chartered company, Church, colony, evangelization, issue, settlement, society, state, territory, trade.

The table below shows how some historical knowledge has been reorganized.

Program

Reorganization Progression of learning
  • Seigneurial system
This element of knowledge has been moved to Secondary IV.

Secondary IV:
Population and settlement
French régime

  • 3.3. Organization of the territory
  • Economic activities
This element of knowledge has been moved to Secondary IV.

Secondary IV:
Economy and development
French régime

  1. Economy based on fur
  2. Agriculture
  3. Craft activities
  4. Attempts at economic diversification
  • Relations with the Native peoples
This element of knowledge is included in Section 2.4.

Secondary III:
The emergence of a society in New France

2.4. Effects of the colonization programs
  • Relations between New France and the Anglo-American colonies
This element of knowledge is included in Section 2.5.

Secondary III:
The emergence of a society in New France

2.5. Franco-British rivalry in North America during the 18th century

Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.

Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.

 

Student reinvests knowledge.

Year
3 4
  1. The “French fact” in Québec today
    1. Indicates the demographic weight of the main language groups
 
    1. Names public institutions that reflect the “French fact” (e.g. the Charter of the French language, the Civil Code)
 
    1. Indicates forms of cultural expression illustrating the “French fact” (e.g. the Francofolies de Montréal, the Fêtes de la Nouvelle-France, the Festival en chanson de Petite-Vallée)
 
  1. The emergence of a society in New France
  • 2.1.   Colonization program of the chartered companies
    1. Identifies the administrators of the colony before 1663: chartered companies, particularly the Company of One Hundred Associates
 
    1. Names the objective of the chartered companies: profit
 
    1. Indicates factors that influenced the decision to locate the first settlements in the St. Lawrence Valley: access to resources, access to water routes, presence of Amerindians
 
    1. Names the main obligation and the privilege granted to the chartered companies by the state: settlement of the colony, monopoly on the fur trade
 
    1. Indicates actions taken by the chartered companies to develop the fur trade (e.g. exploring the territory, constructing trading posts)
 
  • 2.2.   Colonization program of the state
    1. Identifies the administrators of the colony after 1663: the governor, the intendant, the sovereign council
 
    1. Indicates roles of the governor, intendant and sovereign council (e.g. the governor handled diplomacy; the intendant managed finances; the sovereign council administered justice according to the Custom of Paris)
 
    1. Names the objectives pursued by the state under royal government: to settle the colony and obtain resources
 
    1. Indicates measures taken by the state to settle the colony: granting land to engagés and soldiers, sending the Filles du Roy
 
  • 2.3.   Colonization program of the Church
    1. Names the objectives pursued by the Church: evangelization, religious and social guidance
 
    1. Indicates actions taken by the Church to support evangelization and provide religious and social guidance: establishment of religious orders, missions and parishes
 
  • 2.4.   Effects of the colonization programs
    1. Indicates effects of the colonization programs on the territory: occupation of the St. Lawrence Valley, division of land into seigneuries, construction of forts, expansion of the territory
 
    1. Names the first French settlements: Québec, Trois-Rivières, Montréal
 
    1. Names territories the French explored and occupied: the Great Lakes, the Mississippi, Hudson Bay
 
    1. Indicates the effect of the colonization programs of the chartered companies and of the state on economic activity: development of the fur trade
 
    1. Indicates effects of the colonization programs on relations with the Amerindians (e.g. conversion, alliances and rivalries)
 
  • 2.5.   Franco-British rivalry in North America during the 18th century
    1. Names the main reasons for the rivalry between France and Great Britain: possession of the territory, control of the fur trade
 
    1. Indicates the main effect of the Treaty of Utrecht for New France: loss of land in Hudson Bay, Acadia, Newfoundland
 
    1. Describes the balance of military strength between France and Great Britain before the Conquest: Great Britain had more ships than France; Great Britain had more, better-armed troops than France
 
    1. Names some facts related to the Conquest (e.g. war in Ohio, deportation of the Acadians, battle of the Plains of Abraham, capitulation of Montréal)
 
  1. Search for autonomy and dependent relationships in Québec today
    1. Indicates the main measure taken by the state to protect and promote the “French fact”: the Charter of the French language
 
    1. Names organizations that seek to promote the “French fact” (e.g. the Société Saint-Jean-Baptiste, the Office québécois de la langue française, the Conseil supérieur de la langue française)
 
    1. Indicates sectors in which Québec depends on other states to meet its needs (e.g. hydrocarbons, food)
 
    1. Names international organizations of which Québec is a member (e.g. UNESCO, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie)
 
    1. Names agreements and international organizations in which Québec is involved as a member of the Canadian federation (e.g. the North American Free Trade Agreement, the World Trade Organization)
 

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