History and Citizenship Education, Secondary III

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The modernization of Québec society

From the Great Depression to the 1980s, state interventionism increased as Québec society experienced major changes in attitudes and values. As the welfare state gradually became established, Québec society was affected by factors such as the baby boom, the advent of consumerism, the diversification of immigration and the emerging debate on the national question. The extraction of natural resources led to development in the regions but raised concerns in Native nations, with which the Québec government had to negotiate. The designated focus for the study of the social phenomenon The modernization of Québec society is The relationship between changes in attitudes and the role of the state.

The concepts prescribed in the program are not explained by means of specific statements. It is through the appropriate use of knowledge related to the social phenomenon studied that students develop their understanding of the following concepts: affirmation, attitude, democratization, interventionism, issue, mass communication, modernization, Quiet Revolution, society, territory.

The table below shows how some historical knowledge has been reorganized.

Program

Reorganization Progression of learning
  • Demographic trends

This element of knowledge has been moved and is considered in detail in Secondary IV.

Secondary IV:
Population and settlement
Contemporary period

  • 1. Demography
  • 2. Migration flows
  • 3. Effects of migration flows
  • Establishment of social programs
  • Regional development

These elements of knowledge are included in Section 2.1.

Secondary III:
The modernization of Québec society

  • 2.1. State interventionism
  • Feminist movement
  • Union movement
  • Secularism

These elements of knowledge are included in Section 2.2.

Secondary III:
The modernization of Québec society

2.2. Movements that have contributed to changing attitudes in Québec

Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.

Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.

 

Student reinvests knowledge.

Year
3 4
  1. Social values and governance in Québec today
    1. Indicates ways to consider the role of the state in society: interventionism, non-interventionism
 
    1. Names values underlying state interventionism (e.g. social justice, equality, solidarity)
 
    1. Names values underlying state non-interventionism (e.g. free enterprise, focus on profit)
 
    1. Names the main areas of community life taken in charge by the state: education, health and social services
 
  1. The modernization of Québec society
  • 2.1.   State interventionism
    1. Indicates the main measures introduced by governments in the social sector to help people without jobs during the depression of the 1930s:  public works program, direct assistance
 
    1. Indicates measures introduced by the federal government in the social arena following the economic crisis of the 1930s: unemployment insurance, family allowances
 
    1. Indicates measures introduced by the Québec government to promote development in the regions: settlement plans, rural electrification, the construction of transportation infrastructure
 
    1. Indicates measures introduced by the Québec government in the social arena, from the Quiet Revolution to the 1980s (e.g. hospital insurance and health insurance, Labour Code, Québec Pension Plan, automobile insurance, public daycare policy)
 
  • 2.2.   Movements that have contributed to changing attitudes in Québec
    1. Names movements that have contributed to changing attitudes: 
 
Feminist movement Union movement Secularism  
    1. Identifies players associated with the feminist movement (e.g. Thérèse F. Casgrain, the Ligue des droits de la femme, Laure Gaudreault, Henry Morgentaler).
Identifies players associated with the union movement (e.g. Madeleine Parent, Michel Chartrand, the Confédération des travailleurs catholiques du Canada / Canadian Catholic Confederation of Labour, labour confederations). Identifies players associated with secularism (e.g. the Faculté des sciences sociales at Université Laval, Frère Untel [Jean-Paul Desbiens], Mgr Alphonse-Marie Parent, Marcel Trudel).  
    1. Indicates demands made by the feminist movement (e.g. right to vote, change in the legal status of married women, access to higher education).
Indicates demands made by the union movement (e.g. better working conditions, measures to improve worker health and safety, especially in the mining sector). Indicates a demand made by the secularist movement: limitation of place of the Church in the education and health sectors.  
    1. Indicates the position of players opposed to the movements contributing to changing attitudes (e.g. the Church advocated the maintenance of women’s traditional role; the Duplessis government and employers’ associations refused to recognize the right to strike).
 
    1. Gives examples of government intervention regarding demands made by the feminist movement (e.g. granting of the right to vote, appointment of women judges).
Gives examples of government intervention regarding demands made by the union movement (e.g. creation of the Department of Labour, passage of the Labour Relations Act, recognition of the right to unionization in the public sector). Cites instances of government intervention regarding demands made by the secularist movement: taking charge of the education and health sectors, passage of the Hospitals Act.  
  • 2.3.   Scientific and technological development
    1. Identifies players who contributed to the development of science and technology (e.g. Frère Marie-Victorin [Conrad Kirouac], Irma LeVasseur, Fernand Seguin, Armand Frappier)
 
    1. Names infrastructure and institutions associated with the development of science and technology (e.g. St. Lawrence Seaway, Montréal metro, Daniel-Johnson hydro dam, Centre de recherche en microbiologie at the Université de Montréal)
 
  • 2.4.   Emergence of consumer society
    1. Indicates factors that contributed to the Americanization of lifestyles in the second half of the 20th century (e.g. the spread of American popular culture, the media)
 
    1. Indicates factors that contributed to increased consumerism in the second half of the 20th century: increase in disposable income, advertising, easy access to credit
 
    1. Names consumer products accessible to most of the population in the second half of the 20th century (e.g. refrigerator, TV, automobile)
 
  • 2.5.   Relations with the Native peoples
    1. Indicates the reaction of the Cree and Inuit in 1971 to the construction of hydroelectric dams by the Québec government: filing in Québec Superior Court of a motion to stop the work
 
    1. Indicates actions undertaken by the Québec government following the decision of the Québec Superior Court that an agreement should be sought with the Cree and Inuit: apply to halt the judicial proceedings launched by the Cree and Inuit, negotiate with those two peoples
 
    1. Indicates the main elements in the agreements signed by the Québec government with the Cree and Inuit (1975) and the Naskapi (1978): protection for traditional lifestyles, financial compensation, creation of autonomous political institutions, development of water, forest and mineral resources
 
  • 2.6.   Affirmation of nationhood
    1. Names expressions associated with the affirmation of nationhood (e.g. “Rendez-nous notre butin,” “Maintenant ou jamais! MAÎTRES chez-nous,” “Égalité ou indépendance,” “Vive le Québec! Vive le Québec libre!”
 
    1. Indicates the position of the majority of French Canadians in the plebiscite on conscription for service overseas: opposition
 
    1. Identifies players in the affirmation of nationhood (e.g. Québec premiers, Rassemblement pour l’indépendance nationale, Mouvement souveraineté-association, socio-political organizations)
 
    1. Gives examples of intervention by the Québec government that reflect the affirmation of nationhood (e.g. adoption of the Fleurdelisé, nationalization of hydroelectric companies, Gérin-Lajoie doctrine and opening of Québec delegations abroad, referendum on sovereignty-association)
 
  1. Conceptions of society and role of the state in Québec today
    1. Describes ways to consider the role of the state within society: interventionism leads the state to take charge of areas of community life; non-interventionism is based on free enterprise and market forces
 
    1. Indicates ways used by the state to intervene in areas of collective life: legislation, taxation, public spending
 
    1. Names public institutions that intervene in areas of public life (e.g. National Assembly, municipalities)
 

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