History and Citizenship Education, Secondary III

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The formation of the Canadian federation

In the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century, the development of industrial capitalism involved major economic and social changes in some Western societies. The results of industrialization, combined with a difficult economic and political context, led to a proposal to unite the British colonies in North America. The colonies expected to seal the union, in particular, by the development of a railway network. The designated focus for the study of the social phenomenon The formation of the Canadian federation is The relationship between industrialization and social, territorial and political change.

The concepts prescribed in the program are not explained by means of specific statements. It is through the appropriate use of knowledge related to the social phenomenon studied that students develop their understanding of the following concepts: capitalism, Confederation, federation, free trade, industrialization, issue, National Policy, population, reserve, society, unionism, territory.

The table below shows how some historical knowledge has been reorganized.

Program

Reorganization Progression of learning
  • Living and working conditions

This element of knowledge is addressed in Section 2.6. and considered in detail in Secondary IV.

Secondary III:
The formation of the Canadian federation

  • 2.6. Industrial development

Secondary IV:
Economy and development
Contemporary period

  • 4.1. Living and working conditions
  • Urban development

This element of knowledge has been moved to Secondary IV.

Secondary IV:
Population and settlement
Contemporary period

  • 4. Cities and regions
  • Demographic trends

This element of knowledge has been moved to Secondary IV.

Secondary IV:
Population and settlement
Contemporary period

  • 2. Migration flows
  • Political organization

This element of knowledge is addressed in Section 2.3.

Secondary III:
The formation of the Canadian federation

  • 2.3. Political system

Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.

Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.

 

Student reinvests knowledge.

Year
3 4
  1. Québec’s place within the Canadian federation today
    1. Names areas of jurisdiction of the federal and provincial governments (e.g. defence and currency for the federal government; education and civil law for the Québec government; immigration and agriculture shared between the two levels of government)
 
    1. Indicates measures used to redistribute wealth between the provinces: equalization payments, federal social programs
 
    1. Gives characteristics of Québec’s economic development (e.g. difficulties encountered by some industries, the beginning of the aerospace and biotechnology industries)
 
  1. The formation of the Canadian federation
  • 2.1.   The move toward federation
    1. Identifies players in the project to federate the British colonies in North America (e.g. bankers, Cartier, Brown, the British Parliament)
 
    1. Gives reasons invoked by the supporters and opponents of the federation project (e.g. creation of a domestic market for supporters; political minoritization of Francophones for opponents)
 
    1. Gives the main results of the Charlottetown, Québec and London conferences: agreement in principle on a federation at the Charlottetown conference; agreement on a federal union, power-sharing and construction of a railway at the Québec conference; agreement on creating a federation at the London conference
 
    1. Names the colonies that took part in the preparatory conferences but did not join the projected federation: Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland
 
  • 2.2.   Canadian federation
    1. Names the 1867 constitution: the British North America Act
 
    1. Names the provinces that made up Canada in 1867: New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Québec, Ontario
 
    1. Locates on a map the provinces that made up Canada in 1867
 
    1. Names the provinces that joined the Canadian federation between 1870 and 19051:  Manitoba, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island, Saskatchewan, Alberta
 
    1. Locates on a map the provinces that joined the Canadian federation between 1870 and 1905
 
  • 2.3.   Political system
    1. Names the political system maintained by the British North America Act: constitutional monarchy
 
    1. Describes the political structure established by the British North America Act and the powers of its constituent parts (e.g. the House of Commons passes legislation, the Governor General gives assent)
 
  • 2.4.  Relations with the Amerindians and Métis2
    1. Names the territories of the Hudson’s Bay company purchased by the federal government in 1869: Northwest Territories, Rupert’s Land
 
    1. Describes the main reactions of the Métis after the purchase by Canada of the territories of the Hudson’s Bay Company: the Métis rise up under the leadership of Riel; a provisional government is formed at Red River
 
    1. Names the objective targeted by the Indian Act of 1876: assimilation
 
  • 2.5.   Relations with Great Britain
    1. Indicates the Dominion of Canada’s degree of autonomy from Great Britain after the passage of the British North America Act: full autonomy in the area of domestic policy; dependency in international and constitutional matters
 
    1. Indicates effects, for Canada, of its status as a dominion prior to 1931 (e.g. participation in the Boer War, participation in the First World War)
 
    1. Indicates the Dominion of Canada’s degree of autonomy from Great Britain after the passage of the Statute of Westminster: full autonomy in international matters; dependency in constitutional matters
 
  • 2.6.   Industrial development
    1. Indicates the main industrial sectors developed during the first phase of industrialization, the main sources of capital and the main market: manufacturing and the timber industry; capital mainly from Great Britain; the domestic market
 
    1. Names the objectives of the National Policy: protection for Canadian industries, settlement of Western Canada, development of the domestic market
 
    1. Names the three components of the National Policy: increase in customs duties, increase in immigration, completion of the transcontinental railway
 
    1. Indicates the main industrial sectors developed during the second phase of industrialization, the main sources of capital and the markets: hydroelectricity, metallurgy, mining and pulp and paper; capital mainly from the United States; the local market and export market
 
    1. Describes some living and working conditions of workers (e.g. unhealthy housing; long working hours; low wages)
 
    1. Establishes a connection between industrialization and unionization: poor working conditions encourage workers to group together and make demands
 
    1. Indicates effects of industrial development on cities and regions (e.g. exodus from rural areas, expansion of the road network, increase in the number of businesses and services)
 
  1. Economic change and political power in Québec today
    1. Indicates effects of market liberalization on Québec’s economy (e.g. job relocation in some sectors of activity, increase in exports)
 
    1. Indicates measures implemented by the Québec government to develop certain economic sectors (e.g. investments in research and development; support for specialization and innovation; adoption of a green technology development strategy)
 
    1. Identifies interest groups concerned by economic change (e.g. community groups, unions, political parties)
 
    1. Names public institutions concerned by economic change (e.g. parliaments, Bank of Canada, Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec)
 
1.  In 1949, the British colony of Newfoundland joined the Canadian federation.
2.  The Métis are one of the Native people, along with the Amerindians and Inuit.

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