History and Citizenship Education, Secondary IV

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Economy and development

The economic development of a society is related to its resources and to the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services. From the 16th century to the present, the economy of Québec has been characterized by the uneven development of its regions, in particular with regard to resource development and employment. At different periods, resources such as fish, beaver, timber and ore have contributed to the economic development of the territory. The designated focus for the study of the social phenomenon Economy and development is The effects of economic activity on the organization of the society and the territory, from the first occupants1 to the present.

The concepts prescribed by the program are not explained by means of specific statements. It is through the appropriate use of knowledge related to the social phenomenon studied that students develop their understanding of the following concepts: capital, consumption, disparity, distribution, economy, issue, production, society, territory.

The table below shows how some historical knowledge has been reorganized.

First occupants

Program

Reorganization Progression of learning
  • Economic activities
This element of knowledge, originally associated with the social phenomenon The first occupants, has been moved to Secondary IV.

Secondary IV:
Economy and development

  • 1. Trade networks
  • Organization and occupation of the territory
This element of knowledge, originally associated with the social phenomenon Population and settlement, is now associated with the social phenomenon Economy and development.

Secondary IV:
Economy and development

1.2. Effects of economic activity on the organization of the society and the territory
French régime

Program

Reorganization Progression of learning
  • Economic activities
This element of knowledge, originally associated with the social phenomenon The emergence of a society in New France, has been moved to Secondary IV.

Secondary IV:
Economy and development

  1. Economy based on fur
  2. Agriculture
  3. Craft activities
  4. Attempts at economic diversification
  • Alliances and rivalries

This element of knowledge is included in Section 2.2.

Secondary IV:
Economy and development

2.2. Effects on the organization of the society and the territory
British rule

Program

Reorganization Progression of learning
  • Economic activities
This element of knowledge is addressed in Secondary III as part of the social phenomenon The change of empire and considered in detail in Secondary IV.

Secondary IV:
Economy and development

  • 1. Economy based on fur
  • 2. Economy based on timber
  • 3. Agriculture
  • Beginning of industrialization
This element of knowledge is included in Section 2.

Secondary IV:
Economy and development, Contemporary period

  • 2. Industrial development
  • Economic policies
This element of knowledge originally associated with the social phenomenon Demands and struggles in the British colony, has been moved to Secondary IV.

Secondary IV:
Economy and development

  • 5. Economic policies
Contemporary period

Program

Reorganization Progression of learning
  • Living and working conditions
This element of knowledge is addressed in Secondary III as part of the social phenomenon The formation of the Canadian federation in Section 2.6. and considered in detail in Secondary IV.

Secondary IV:
Economy and development

  • 4.1. Living and working conditions

Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.

Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.

 

Student reinvests knowledge.

3
The figure 3 indicates that some knowledge related to this learning was addressed in Secondary III.
Year
3 4
Economy and development in Québec today
    1. Names Québec’s main natural resources: water, forests, ore
 
    1. Names Québec’s main imports (e.g. hydrocarbons, motor vehicles)
 
    1. Names Québec’s main exports (e.g. aluminium, alloys, airplanes)
 
    1. Names areas in which Québec has internationally recognized expertise (e.g. aeronautics, dam construction, performing arts)
 
    1. Indicates matters on which Québec has entered into economic partnerships with other states (e.g. recognition of professional qualifications with France, labour mobility and the recognition of professional qualifications in the construction industry with Ontario)
 
  1. First occupants
    around 1500
Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.
3
The figure 3 indicates that some knowledge related to this learning was addressed in Secondary III.
Year
3 4
  1. Trade networks
  • 1.1.   Characteristics of trade networks
    1. Names economic activities practised by Native peoples: hunting, fishing, gathering, agriculture
 
    1. Names products traded between Native groups (e.g. shells, silica, corn)
 
    1. Describes Native trade networks: the trade networks spanned the continent and were based on barter; there were many intermediaries and most transportation was by water
 
    1. Names places where Native groups bartered products (e.g. the confluence of the Ottawa and St. Lawrence rivers, Tadoussac, Red Bay)
 
  • 1.2.   Effects of economic activities on the organization of the society and the territory
    1. Describes effects of economic activities of Native groups on the organization of their society (e.g. the practice of hunting led the Maliseet to adopt a nomadic lifestyle and a patriarchal structure; the practice of farming led the Huron to adopt a sedentary lifestyle and a matriarchal structure)
 
    1. Describes effects of economic activities of Native groups on the organization of their territory (e.g. the practice of hunting led the Maliseet to set up temporary camps on their hunting grounds; the practice of farming led the Huron to set out fields around their villages)
 
    1. Indicates the utility of trade between Native groups: meet needs, establish alliances
 
  1. European fishing grounds
  • 2.1.   Fishing
    1. Names the economic activity that brought Europeans to the shores of North America and the Gulf of St. Lawrence in the early 16th century: fishing
 
    1. Identifies the groups of Europeans who frequented the shores of North America and in the St. Lawrence Gulf and Estuary in the early 16th century (e.g. Basques, Normans)
 
  • 2.2.   First contacts
    1. Indicates the context for the first meetings between European fishers and Amerindians: fishers drying cod on the shores of the Gulf of St. Lawrence met Amerindian hunters
 
    1. Indicates products that the Amerindians obtained from European fishers in exchange for furs (e.g. knives, pots, glass and porcelain beads)
 
    1. Indicates effects of contacts with European fishers on Amerindian society and territory (e.g. increased harvesting of fur-bearing animals to trade with the European fishers; circulation of European products through Amerindian trade networks)
 
  1. French régime
    1608-1760
Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.
3
The figure 3 indicates that some knowledge related to this learning was addressed in Secondary III.
Year
3 4
  1. Organization of the economy in New France
  • 1.1.   Economic policy
    1. Defines mercantilism:  economic policy designed to enrich the mother country
 
    1. Indicates the methods used by the mother country to enrich itself: accumulation of precious metals, exploitation of its colonies’ resources
 
    1. Indicates the role played by the colony under France’s mercantilist policy: export raw materials to the mother country, purchase manufactured goods from the mother country
 
  • 1.2.   Triangular trade
    1. Names the territories forming the legs of the triangular trade: France, New France, the French West Indies
 
    1. Names the products in circulation thanks to the triangular trade and their origin (e.g. fur and fish from New France, rum from the French West Indies, manufactured goods from France)
 
  1. Economy based on fur
  • 2.1.   Organization
    1. Describes roles of various agents in the fur trade (e.g. Amerindians who hunted animals and processed pelts, coureurs des bois who brought furs to a trading post)
 
    1. Indicates the importance of fur in trade with France in the mid-18th century: fur was the main export product
 
  • 2.2.   Effects on the organization of the society and of the territory
    1. Indicates effects of the fur trade on Amerindian groups: alliances between the French and the Huron, use of European goods by Amerindians
 
    1. Indicates effects of the fur trade on the society and the territory: slow settlement, establishment of trading posts, territorial expansion
 
    1. Indicates effects of the fur trade on relations between New France and the Anglo-American colonies: commercial rivalry, wars
 
  1. Agriculture
  • 3.1.   Organization
    1. Names the economic activity in which most inhabitants of New France were involved: agriculture
 
    1. Indicates the markets where most agricultural surpluses were sent: local market, cities, France
 
    1. Names agricultural processing activities: brewing beer, grinding grain, manufacturing canvas and rigging
 
  • 3.2.   Effects on the organization of the territory
    1. Indicates effects of agricultural activity on the organization of the territory: increase in the area of cultivated land, construction of mills, establishment of public markets
 
  1. Craft activities
  • 4.1.   Organization
    1. Names craft activities that developed in the colony (e.g. wig-making, construction of casks and metal objects )
 
    1. Names craft activities (e.g. carpentry, masonry, hat making)
 
  • 4.2.   Effects on the organization of the territory
    1. Indicates effects of craft activities on the organization of the territory: growth of cities, presence of workshops and boutiques in craft workers’ neighbourhoods
 
  1. Attempts at economic diversification
  • 5.1.   Measures taken by the state
    1. Indicates measures taken by Intendant Talon to diversify the colony’s economy: encouragement to cultivate flax, hemp and hops, and to raise livestock
 
    1. Indicates measures introduced by intendants Bégon and Hocquart to diversify the colony’s economy: support for iron ore mining in the Mauricie, establishment of the king’s naval shipyard in Québec City
 
  • 5.2.   Obstacles to economic diversification
    1. Indicates obstacles to the diversification of the economy in New France: economy based on the fur trade, lack of capital, scarcity of specialized labour
 
    1. Indicates the factor explaining the scarcity of economic diversification in New France: mercantilism
 
  1. British rule
    1760-1867
Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.
3
The figure 3 indicates that some knowledge related to this learning was addressed in Secondary III.
Year
3 4
  1. Economy based on fur
  • 1.1.   Organization
    1. Identifies the main fur-trading companies: Hudson’s Bay Company, Northwest Company
 
    1. Indicates effects of the transfer of the fur trade to British companies (e.g. arrival of British merchants, hiring of Canadiens as voyageurs for the Northwest Company)
 
    1. Indicates economic effects of the expansion of the fur trade to the northwest: founding of the Northwest Company, establishment of trading posts, exhaustion of the resource
 
    1. Names the main territories for the supply and trade of fur: Hudson Bay region, Great Lakes region
 
  • 1.2.   Decline of the fur trade
    1. Indicates factors that contributed to the decline of the fur trade in the early 19th century: increasingly remote trading territories, increased operating costs
 
    1. Indicates effects of the decline of the fur trade on the economy of the colony in the early 19th century: takeover of the Northwest Company by the Hudson’s Bay Company; replacement of Montréal by Hudson Bay as the main place of export
 
  1. Economy based on timber
  • 2.1.   Organization
    1. Indicates the importance of the timber trade for the economy of Lower Canada around 1810: timber replaced furs as the main export product
 
    1. Indicates the source of capital: Great Britain
 
    1. Indicates the composition of the workforce: mostly French Canadians and Irish immigrants
 
    1. Names trades related to the economy based on timber (e.g. lumberjack, log driver, sawyer)
 
    1. Names products and their target market (e.g. large squared pine or oak beams, staves and construction lumber; Great Britain)
 
    1. Names places associated with the timber trade (e.g. port of Québec, forest regions, Great Britain)
 
  • 2.2.   Factors in the development of the timber trade in the early 19th century
    1. Indicates factors that contributed to the development of the timber trade in the colony in the early 19th century: continental blockade by Napoleon, construction of warships, establishment of preferential tariffs by Great Britain
 
    1. Indicates  measures taken by merchants to facilitate financial operations and access to capital: founding of banks, issue of paper money by banks
 
  • 2.3.   Effect of the development of the timber trade
    1. Indicates effects of the development of the timber trade on social groups in Lower Canada: increase in the number of workers and artisans, increased influence of the business class
 
    1. Names regions of colonization that developed with the timber trade (e.g. Mauricie, Saguenay)
 
    1. Indicates effects of the development of the timber trade on the population in the first half of the 19th century: some workers migrated to regions newly opened up to forestry; forestry work provided farmers with extra income
 
  1. Agriculture
  • 3.1.   Crops and markets
    1. Names agricultural crops in Lower Canada in the early 19th century (e.g. wheat, oats, potatoes)
 
    1. Indicates the target markets for some crops from Lower Canada: the local market, the British market
 
  • 3.2.   Decline of wheat production in Lower Canada
    1. Indicates problems related to agriculture in Lower Canada in the 1830s (e.g. overpopulation on agricultural land, soil exhaustion in the seigneurial zone)
 
    1. Indicates solutions chosen by farmers facing difficulty: settling in new colonization regions, moving to cities or emigrating to the United States
 
  1. Effects of economic activity on transportation development
    1. Names transportation infrastructure established in the first half of the 19th century: canals, railways
 
    1. Indicates advantages generated by transportation infrastructure: quick travel, increase in the volume of freight transported
 
  1. Economic policies
  • 5.1.   Protectionism
    1. Defines protectionism:  policy designed to protect national economy against foreign competition
 
    1. Indicates effects of the protectionism adopted by Great Britain on the economy of the colony: increase in timber exports to Great Britain, increase in port activities
 
  • 5.2.   Free trade
    1. Defines free trade: free circulation of merchandise, no customs barriers to trade
 
    1. Indicates effects of the establishment of free trade by Great Britain on the colony’s economy: reduced exports to Great Britain, a search for new markets
 
  1. Contemporary period
    1867 to the present
Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.
3
The figure 3 indicates that some knowledge related to this learning was addressed in Secondary III.
Year
3 4
  1. Exploitation of resources and opening of new regions
  • 1.1.   Resources and regions
    1. Names resources exploited in the first phase of industrialization (e.g. timber, leather, dairy, tobacco)
 
    1. Names natural resources exploited during the second phase of industrialization (e.g. copper, silver, gold, zinc, asbestos, water)
 
    1. Names natural resources exploited in the Abitibi, Côte-Nord and Gaspésie regions (e.g. iron and titanium in the Côte-Nord region, copper and wood in the Abitibi and Gaspésie regions)
 
    1. Indicates effects of natural resource exploitation on the organization of the territory (e.g. development of regions, railway construction, harbour development)
 
  • 1.2.   Agriculture
    1. Indicates the main changes to agriculture in the late 19th century: improved production techniques, development of the dairy industry
 
    1. Indicates the main change to agriculture in the early 20th century: use of farm machinery
 
    1. Indicates changes that occurred in agriculture between 1945 and 1960 (e.g. rural electrification, creation of agricultural cooperatives)
 
    1. Indicates changes that occurred in the agricultural industry between 1960 and 1980 (e.g. reduction in number of farms, introduction of production quotas, use of fertilizers and pesticides)
 
    1. Indicates changes that occurred in the agricultural industry after 1980 (e.g. improved access to international markets, focus on organic production, reduction in the area of land under cultivation)
 
  1. Industrial development
  • 2.1.   Phases of industrialization
    1. Names some facts about industrial development during the first phase of industrialization (e.g. the use of coal as a source of energy, the division of labour, mechanization)
 
    1. Names some facts about industrial development during the second phase of industrialization (e.g. use of hydroelectricity as a power source, need for specialized labour, more extensive mechanization)
 
    1. Indicates factors that contributed to industrial development during one of the phases of industrialization (e.g. extensive natural resources, strong hydroelectric potential, abundant and low-cost labour)
 
    1. Indicates effects of industrial development on society during one of the phases of industrialization (e.g. child labour, difficult living and working conditions, social and economic disparity between the business class and the working class)
 
    1. Indicates effects of industrial development on the territory during the first phase of industrialization (e.g. development of working class neighbourhoods, widening of canals, introduction of electric streetcars)
 
  • 2.2.   The war industry
    1. Indicates factors that contributed to industrial development during the Second World War: demand for military supplies, need for food in Europe
 
    1. Indicates effects of the war industry on industrial production and the society during the Second World War: increased production in the steel, transportation and chemical sectors; increase in the number of women working in factories
 
  • 2.3.   The period 1945 to 1960
    1. Names some facts about industrial development (e.g. increased factory production, increased mineral production, development of the petrochemical industry)
 
    1. Indicates factors that contributed to industrial development (e.g. the reconstruction of European countries after the Second World War, demand for raw materials and military materials in the United States)
 
    1. Indicates effects of economic development on society (e.g. labour struggles, increase in purchasing power, employment growth in the tertiary sector)
 
    1. Indicates effects of economic development on the territory (e.g. development of cities and suburbs, creation of the St. Lawrence Seaway, expansion of the road network)
 
  • 2.4.   The period 1960 to 1980
    1. Names some facts about economic development (e.g. creation of small- and medium-sized enterprises, emergence of Québec multinationals)
 
    1. Indicates the factor that contributed to economic development: government intervention
3
    1. Cites instances of government intervention in the economy (e.g. creation of Crown  corporations, drafting of a regional development plan, creation of the Stock Savings Plan, construction of hydroelectric dams)
 
    1. Indicates effects of economic development on society (e.g. increase in the unionization rate, improvement in working conditions, establishment of new social programs)
 
    1. Indicates effects of economic development on the territory (e.g. development of industrial zones, increase in residential construction, development of transportation infrastructure, construction of suburban shopping centres)
 
  • 2.5.   The period 1980 to the turn of the 21st century
    1. Names some facts about economic development (e.g. reduced importance of the primary and secondary sectors, development of a high-technology sector, worldwide competition)
 
    1. Indicates factors that contributed to economic development (e.g. globalization of the economy, formation of consortiums)
 
    1. Indicates effects of economic globalization on society (e.g. job relocation, establishment of training programs for laid-off workers, creation of new businesses)
 
  1. Urban expansion
  • 3.1.   Effects of urbanization
    1. Gives the main characteristics of urbanization: concentration of the population, multiplication of services
 
    1. Indicates effects of the development of cities on the organization of the society and the territory in the second half of the 19th century (e.g. appearance of well-off neighbourhoods at a distance from working-class neighbourhoods, creation of parks)
 
    1. Indicates effects of the development of cities on the organization of the society and the territory in the early 20th century (e.g. establishment of public services, opening of department stores, urban sprawl)
 
  1. Socioeconomic context of working-class life
  • 4.1.   Living and working conditions
    1. Describes the living conditions in working-class neighbourhoods in the late 19th century (e.g. unhygienic conditions, unhealthy housing, pollution and crowding leading to new health problems)
3
    1. Describes the working conditions in factories in the late 19th century (e.g. six-day workweek of 60 to 70 hours; women and children paid less than men)
3
    1. Indicates the main method used by workers to improve their working conditions in the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century: unionization
 
    1. Indicates the reaction of the clergy to the establishment of American unions in Québec in the late 19th century and early 20th century: foundation of Catholic unions
 
  • 4.2.   Workers’ demands
    1. Indicates demands made by workers in the first half of the 20th century (e.g. reduction in working hours, prohibition of child labour)
 
    1. Indicates demands made by workers between 1945 and 1960 (e.g. wage increases, protection against industrial illnesses)
 
    1. Indicates demands made by workers between 1960 and 1980 (e.g. amendments to labour relations legislation, measures to combat social inequality)
 
    1. Indicates demands made by workers since 1980 (e.g. protection against inflation, parental leave, improved pension plans, reorganization of work schedules)
 
  1. Economic cycles
  • 5.1.   Economic indicators
    1. Names economic indicators (e.g. gross domestic product, unemployment rate, balance of trade)
 
  • 5.2.   Expansion and contraction
    1. Gives characteristics of a period of expansion: increase in production, increase in exports, reduction of unemployment
 
    1. Gives characteristics of a period of contraction: reduction in production, reduction in exports, increase in unemployment
 
  • 5.3.   Depression and recession
    1. Names some facts about the economic depression of the 1870s (e.g. precarious financial situation of some banks, increased unemployment)
 
    1. Names some facts about the economic depression of the 1930s (e.g. introduction of public works programs, establishment of assistance measures for the unemployed)
3
    1. Names some facts about recessions since 1970 (e.g. oil price increases, closure of mines and mining towns)
 
  1. Economic policies
  • 6.1.   Free trade
    1. Indicates the solution chosen by United Canada in 1854 to deal with the market problem caused by Great Britain’s free trade policies: trade agreement with the United States
 
    1. Indicates effects of free trade on Québec’s economy (e.g. job losses in certain sectors, increase in exports)
 
  • 6.2.   Protectionism
    1. Indicates the solution chosen to find new markets for the products of United Canada after the non-renewal of the Reciprocity Treaty: creation of a domestic market
 
    1. Indicates the solution chosen to develop the domestic market and Canadian industry in the second half of the 19th century: increasing customs duties after adopting the National Policy
3
Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.
3
The figure 3 indicates that some knowledge related to this learning was addressed in Secondary III.
Year
3 4
Economic development and the social values of equity, justice and solidarity in Québec today
    1. Identifies players concerned by economic development (e.g. the government, consumers’ associations, employers’ and union organizations)
 
    1. Indicates measures taken by the government to promote economic development (e.g. granting of subsidies to businesses, establishment of worker training programs, financial support for research and development)
 
    1. Indicates measures taken by the government that reflect commitment to the social values of equity, justice and solidarity (e.g. free and universal health care, income redistribution)
 
    1. Indicates sources of government revenue (e.g. income tax, profits of Crown corporations)
 
    1. Indicates the main items of government expenditure: education, health and social services
 
    1. Indicates means used by citizens to make their voices heard concerning the economic decisions of the government (e.g. participating in elections, taking part in public consultations, signing petitions)
 
1.  The first occupants were the Amerindians and Inuit.

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