History and Citizenship Education, Secondary IV

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Culture and currents of thought

Culture depends on the major currents of thought that develop in or influence societies. Since the time of the first occupants,1 Québec’s territory and the societies that have settled it have been marked by numerous currents of thought, which have given rise to different forms of cultural expression. Today, these forms of cultural expression make up the cultural heritage of Québec society. Passed from generation to generation by institutions such as the family and the school, this heritage includes objects, practices, customs, works of art, monuments, and so on. The designated focus for the study of the social phenomenon Culture and currents of thought is The influence of ideas on cultural expression, from the first occupants to the present.

The concepts prescribed by the program are not explained by means of specific statements. It is by using all of the knowledge related to the social phenomenon studied that students develop their understanding of the following concepts: art, culture, education, heritage, identity, issue, religion, society, territory.

The table below shows how some historical knowledge has been reorganized.

First occupants

Program

Reorganization Progression of learning
  • Social relationships
This element of knowledge, originally associated with the social phenomenon Culture and currents of thought, is studied in Secondary III as part of the social phenomenon The first occupants.

Secondary III:
The first occupants

  • 2.5. Social relationships

Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.

Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.

 

Student reinvests knowledge.

3
The figure 3 indicates that some knowledge related to this learning was addressed in Secondary III.
Year
3 4
Culture and currents of thought in Québec today
    1. Names currents of thought in Québec today (e.g. Aboriginalism, feminism, nationalism)
 
    1. Gives characteristics of Québec’s cultural identity (e.g. French language, values of freedom and equality)
 
    1. Indicates examples of means used to disseminate culture (e.g. literature, theatre, music, sculpture)
 
    1. Indicates examples of means used to transmit culture (e.g. family, educational institutions, media)
 
  1. First occupants
    around 1500
Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.
3
The figure 3 indicates that some knowledge related to this learning was addressed in Secondary III.
Year
3 4
  1. Spirituality
    1. Identifies the main players embodying spirituality among Native peoples:  shamans, Elders
 
    1. Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with spirituality among Native peoples (e.g. communication with spirits, interpretation of dreams, performance of hunting and healing rituals)
 
  1. Relationship with nature
    1. Describes the relationship maintained by Native peoples with nature: an attitude of respect toward nature, with which human beings form a circle of life
3
    1. Identifies players: hunters, gatherers, women
 
    1. Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with the relationship maintained by Native peoples with nature (e.g. ceremonies at changes of season, association of animal totems with clans)
 
  1. Communication and trade
    1. Names one element common to all communication and trade among the Native peoples: the reciprocal relationship based on the gift and the counter-gift
 
    1. Identifies players (e.g. chiefs, council of Elders)
 
    1. Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with communication and trade among the Native peoples (e.g. performance of ritual dances, use of drums)
 
  1. French régime
    1608-1760
Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.
3
The figure 3 indicates that some knowledge related to this learning was addressed in Secondary III.
Year
3 4
  1. Divine right of kings
    1. Gives characteristics of the divine right of kings: monarchs derived their power from God, all power belonged to the monarch
 
    1. Identifies the players who embody the divine right of kings: the king, the governor
 
    1. Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with the divine right of kings (e.g. the appointment of the bishop by the monarch, the Château Saint-Louis, the royal coat of arms with the fleur-de-lys)
 
  1. Catholicism
    1. Gives characteristics of Catholicism (e.g. Christian religion, recognition of the authority of the pope)
 
    1. Identifies the players who embody Catholicism: bishops, clergy, religious orders, missionaries, school, family
 
    1. Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with Catholicism (e.g. written documents such as the Conversion des Sauvages by Marc Lescarbot, the Jesuit Relations, the Catéchisme du diocèse de Québec, religious buildings, religious art, regulation of daily life by the religious calendar)
 
  1. Independent spirit and adaptability of the Canadiens
    1. Identifies players who embody the independent spirit and adaptability of the Canadiens: coureurs des bois, habitants, merchants
 
    1. Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with the independence of the Canadiens from the state and the Church (e.g. fur trading without a permit, living in Amerindian territory, resistance to authority such as that related in Histoire et description de la Nouvelle-France by Father Charlevoix, Kalm’s Travels in North America)
 
    1. Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with the adaptability of the Canadiens (e.g. construction of houses adapted to the climate, use of birchbark canoes, snowshoes and fur clothing)
 
  1. British rule
    1760-1867

Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.
3
The figure 3 indicates that some knowledge related to this learning was addressed in Secondary III.
Year
3 4
  1. Imperialism
    1. Gives characteristics of imperialism (e.g. imposition of political structures by a state on other territories, policy of assimilation and acculturation, control of the economy)
 
    1. Identifies players who embody imperialism: the king, the governor
 
    1. Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with imperialism (e.g. The Quebec Gazette / La Gazette de Québec, The History of Emily Montague by Frances Brooke, the monument Nelson’s Column in Montréal, Victoria Square)
 
  1. Liberalism
    1. Gives characteristics of liberalism (e.g. individual freedom, freedom of expression, freedom of the press, participation in the exercise of political power)
 
    1. Identifies players who embody liberalism (e.g. some British merchants, Louis-Joseph Papineau, the French-Canadian professional bourgeoisie, the Patriotes)
 
    1. Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with liberalism (e.g. opinion journals such as Le Canadien and The Vindicator, the flag of the Patriotes, the Theater Royal in Montréal, the Art Association of Montreal, the Société Saint-Jean-Baptiste)
 
  1. Ultramontanism
    1. Gives characteristics of ultramontanism (e.g. assertion of the primacy of the Church over the state, rejection of modernism, recognition of the absolute power of the pope)
 
    1. Identifies players who embody ultramontanism (e.g. Monseigneur Bourget, Monseigneur Laflèche, the clergy)
 
    1. Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with ultramontanism (e.g. establishment of the Œuvre des bons livres by the Sulpicians, Saint-Jacques-le-Majeur church [Cathédrale Marie-Reine-du-Monde], Pontifical Zouave movement)
 
  1. Anticlericalism
    1. Gives characteristics of anticlericalism (e.g. opposition to the influence of the church on the state, rejection of clerical intervention in civil society, challenging of traditionalism)
 
    1. Identifies players who embody anticlericalism (e.g. the Parti rouge, the Institut canadien de Montréal,  Dessaulles)
 
    1. Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with anticlericalism (e.g. the library of the Institut canadien de Montréal, publication of the opinion journal L’AvenirLettres sur le Canada by Arthur Buies)
 
  1. Contemporary period
    1867 to the present
Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.
3
The figure 3 indicates that some knowledge related to this learning was addressed in Secondary III.
Year
3 4
  1. Imperialism
    1. Gives characteristics of imperialism (e.g. imposition of political institutions, imposition of one’s culture and values on the territories in one’s possession)
 
    1. Identifies players who embody British imperialism (e.g. Lord Dufferin, the Orangists, the Imperial Federation League, D’Alton McCarthy)
 
    1. Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with British imperialism (e.g. the statue of Queen Victoria in Victoria Square, First World War recruitment posters, visit of George VI to Québec)
 
  1. Capitalism
    1. Gives characteristics of capitalism (e.g. private ownership of means of production, focus on profit)
 
    1. Identifies players who embody capitalism (e.g. the Montreal Curb Market, banks, John Redpath, multinationals)
 
    1. Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with capitalism (e.g. the Sun Life building, the Dominion Corset building, Saint-Roch neighbourhood in Québec City and Saint-Henri neighbourhood in Montréal) 
 
  1. Socialism
    1. Gives characteristics of socialism (e.g. collective ownership of the means of production, primacy of general over individual interests)
 
    1. Identifies players who embody socialism (e.g. the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation, Albert Saint-Martin)
 
    1. Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with socialism (e.g. election posters of the Labour-Progressive Party, the Ligue de défense ouvrière / Canadian Labor Defense League, Lea Roback’s Marxist bookstore)
 
  1. Agriculturism
    1. Gives characteristics of agriculturism (e.g. promotion of rural life, primacy of traditional values such as the French language and Catholic religion, rejection of the industrial world)
 
    1. Identifies players who embody agriculturism (e.g. Curé Labelle, Mercier, Monseigneur Courchesne)
 
    1. Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with agriculturism (e.g. Un homme et son péché by Claude-Henri Grignon, La Bonne chanson by Abbé Charles-Émile Gadbois, the Agricultural Merit award)
 
  1. Nationalisms
    1. Defines nationalism: an ideology that claims that a community with shared characteristics forms a nation
 
  • 5.1.   Canadian nationalism
    1. Gives characteristics of Canadian nationalism (e.g. pride in membership in the British Empire, financial and military support for the British Empire)
 
    1. Identifies players who embody Canadian nationalism (e.g. Laurier, the Canada First movement)
 
    1. Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with Canadian nationalism (e.g. the Canadian Red Ensign, the creation of the Canadian navy, Wilfrid Laurier’s prediction that the twentieth century would belong to Canada)
 
  • 5.2.   French Canadian nationalism
    1. Gives characteristics of French Canadian nationalism (e.g. attachment to the French language, attachment to the Catholic religion, distance maintained with the British Empire)
 
    1. Identifies players who embody French Canadian nationalism (e.g. Henri Bourassa, Lionel Groulx, the Bloc populaire)
 
    1. Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with French Canadian nationalism (e.g. the speech given by Honoré Mercier at the Champ de Mars, L’appel de la race by Lionel Groulx, the newspaper Le Nationaliste and the magazine L’Action nationale)
 
  • 5.3.   Québec nationalism
    1. Gives characteristics of Québec nationalism (e.g. safeguarding of the French language, respect for areas of provincial jurisdiction, affirmation of the distinct character of Québec society)
 
    1. Identifies players who embody Québec nationalism (e.g. Duplessis, René Lévesque, the newspaper Le Jour)
 
    1. Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with Québec nationalism (e.g. stage shows such as Poèmes et chants de la résistance and L’Osstidcho, the publication Égalité ou indépendance by Daniel Johnson, the manifesto Option Québec by René Lévesque)
 
  1. Secularism
    1. Gives characteristics of secularism (e.g. non-denominational character of public institutions, limiting religious life to the private sphere)
3
    1. Identifies players who embody secularism (e.g. Paul-Émile Borduas, the École sociale populaire)
 
    1. Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with secularism (e.g. Les demi-civilisés by Jean-Charles Harvey, the Manifeste du Refus global, Cité libre)
 
  1. Cooperatism
    1. Gives characteristics of cooperatism (e.g. sharing of resources, division of any surplus between the members)
 
    1. Identifies players who embody cooperatism (e.g. Alphonse and Dorimène Desjardins, the Union catholique des cultivateurs, Esdras Minville)
 
    1. Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with cooperatism (e.g. the Cooperative Syndicates Act (1906), the Ligue ouvrière catholique, Le Coopérateur agricole)
 
  1. Fascism
    1. Gives characteristics of fascism (e.g. cult of the leader, single party, ethnic nationalism)
 
    1. Identifies players who embody fascism (e.g. the Parti national social chrétien, Adrien Arcand, the Blue Shirts)
 
    1. Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with fascism (e.g. the fresco by Guido Nincheri in Notre-Dame-de-la-Défense church in Montréal, anti-Semitic posters, La Clé du mystère by Adrien Arcand)
 
  1. Feminism
    1. Gives characteristics of feminism (e.g. demands for recognition of women’s rights, sexual equality)
3
    1. Identifies players who embody feminism (e.g. Nellie McClung, the Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women, the Conseil du statut de la femme)
 
    1. Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with feminism (e.g. the Montréal Local Council of Women, the magazine La Vie en rose, the film Le temps de l’avant by Anne Claire Poirier)
 
  1. Americanism
    1. Gives characteristics of Americanism (e.g. fascination with the American way of life, admiration for freedom, individualism and economic success)
3
    1. Identifies players who embody Americanism (e.g. large corporations, Howard Hughes, Ed Sullivan, Oscar Peterson)
 
    1. Indicates forms of cultural expression connected with Americanism (e.g. advertising, fast food, Hollywood movies, jazz)
 
  1. Neoliberalism
    1. Gives characteristics of neoliberalism (e.g. free markets, individual responsibility, reduction in state intervention in areas of public life)
 
    1. Identifies players who embody neoliberalism (e.g. multinationals, financial circles, political parties)
 
    1. Identifies movements that oppose neoliberalism:  global justice movement, social economy movements
 
  1. Aboriginalism
    1. Gives characteristics of Aboriginalism (e.g. preservation of Native culture, protection for Native languages)
 
    1. Identifies players who embody Aboriginalism (e.g. Samian, Élisapie Isaac, Jean-Luc Hervieux, Alanis Obomsawin, Bernard Assiniwi)
 
    1. Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with Aboriginalism (e.g. the Innu Nikamu festival, Le Peuple invisible by Richard Desjardins and Robert Mondérie, the First Peoples festival, Inuit throat singing)
 
Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.
3
The figure 3 indicates that some knowledge related to this learning was addressed in Secondary III.
Year
3 4
Protection of the cultural heritage and cultural homogenization in Québec today
    1. Defines cultural heritage: the shared heritage of a community that is transmitted from one generation to the next, including language, values, social norms, buildings with a historical or artistic interest, artefacts
 
    1. Indicates elements of culture in Québec society that constitute a heritage from the past (e.g. forms of cultural expression associated with the spirituality of the Native peoples, institutions such as the Catholic church, parishes, the French language, The Gazette, Cathedral of the Holy Trinity in Québec City)
 
    1. Indicates means used by the state to preserve Québec’s cultural heritage (e.g. pass legislation, grant subsidies, classify or recognize historical monuments)
 
    1. Indicates effects of economic globalization on national cultures (e.g. broader access to cultural diversity, the homogenization of cultures and lifestyles)
 
1.  The first occupants were the Amerindians and Inuit.

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