History and Citizenship Education (Cycle One)

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Rome exerted its dominance over a vast territory and imposed its institutions and culture on numerous peoples. Studying the political organization of the Roman Empire at its height in the second century allows students to understand Rome’s influence on the societies conquered by its army and sheds light on the foundations of the modern state.

The concepts prescribed by the program are not described using specific statements. It is by using all of the knowledge related to a social phenomenon that students develop their understanding of the following concepts: citizen, culture, right, empire, state, infrastructure, institution, people and territory.

Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.

Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.


Student reinvests knowledge.

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  1. Influence of an empire today
    1. Lists methods used by one state to exert influence on other states (e.g. diplomatic representation, military force)
    1. Lists areas that are subject to foreign influence (e.g. food, fashion, arts, communication)
    1. Indicates actions taken by imperialist states (e.g. control of foreing territory; appropriation of resources)
  1. Romanization and role of the state in the Romanization of the Empire
  • 2.1.   Location in space and time
    1. Locates on a map second-century Rome and the territory of the Roman Empire
    1. Locates on a time line the period of the Roman Empire and some facts related to the period
  • 2.2.   Social structure
    1. Indicates the rights of the different social groups in the population of the Empire: citizens had political rights; peregrini had civil liberties but no political rights; slaves had neither rights nor civil liberties
    1. Describes the social status of women (e.g. free-born women were citizens but did not have the same rights as men; they were considered minors under the authority of their father or husband)
    1. Indicates how individuals could obtain Roman citizenship (e.g. citizenship could be bought, granted by the Emperor, awarded after 25 years of service in the army)
    1. Lists the privileges associated with Roman citizenship (e.g. right to marry a Roman citizen, to own property, to justice)
  • 2.3.   Administrative, legal and political organization
    1. Names territories conquered by Rome (e.g. Gaul, Greece)
    1. Indicates areas under the authority of the Emperor (e.g. religious institutions, the military, the judiciary)
    1. Indicates the function of provincial governors (e.g. taxation, administration of territories)
    1. Indicates the purpose of infrastructure put in place by the Romans (e.g. roads served to move the army and resources, aqueducts supplied water to cities and thermal baths)
    1. Lists principles of Roman law (e.g. presumption of innocence, judgment based on proof, burden of proof rests with the plaintiff)
    1. Indicates what caused the fall of the Roman Empire (e.g. economic difficulties, division of the Empire, military weakness)
  • 2.4.   Culture
    1. Indicates the influence of Latin in the Roman Empire (e.g. conquered peoples incorporated elements of Latin, the language of the Roman government, into their own languages)
    1. Lists elements of Roman architecture in the cities of conquered provinces (e.g. triumphal arches, arenas, temples, theatres, aqueducts)
    1. Gives examples of how conquered peoples influenced Roman culture (e.g. Roman religion incorporated elements from the religions of the conquered peoples; Roman art and architecture were influenced by Greek culture)
  1. Relationships between citizens and public institutions today
    1. Indicates categories of rights conferred by citizenship in society (e.g. political rights, legal rights)
    1. Indicates criteria for obtaining Canadian citizenship (e.g. age, resident status, time lived in Canada, knowledge of an official language)
    1. Names public institutions that citizens encounter in their everyday lives (e.g. libraries, schools, hospitals, museums)

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