Geography (Cycle One)

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Appendix : Techniques used in geography

In Geography, teachers present learning and evaluation situations that allow students to use certain techniques, some of which were introduced in elementary school. They propose learning and evaluation situations requiring the interpretation of maps, the use of written documents, tables or graphs (histograms, contingency tables, bar or circle graphs). The documents used should be varied and adapted to the students’ abilities.

  1. Interprets a landscape
    1. Locates the landscape
    1. Determines the purpose of observing the landscape
    1. Identifies the natural and human elements in the landscape
    1. Identifies the type of information in the landscape
    1. If necessary, draws a sketch of the landscape in three planes : foreground, middle ground and background
  1. Draws a geographic sketch of the landscape
    1. Identifies the elements to be represented (e.g. buildings, landforms, major rivers and highways, vegetation)
    1. Orders the elements according to the purpose
    1. Selects the essential elements
    1. Defines the three planes: foreground, middle ground and background
    1. Makes a simplified representation
    1. Creates a legend
    1. Provides a title that expresses the purpose
  1. Draws a simple map
    1. Defines the purpose
    1. Consults several information sources (e.g. maps, tables, documents)
    1. Depending on the purpose, identifies the essential elements
    1. Envisions the phenomena and the spaces to be mapped
    1. Draws a simple map
    1. Creates a legend
    1. Indicates the scale
    1. Represents the essential elements using signs and symbols
    1. Provides a title that expresses the purpose
  1. Interprets a map
    1. Reads the title
    1. Locates the scale and orientation
    1. Identifies the area mapped
    1. Decodes the signs and symbols in the legend
    1. Recognizes the existence of spatial forms (e.g. population distribution zones, vegetation zones, activity zones)
    1. Supports his/her interpretation using information from the map
  1. Interprets a written document
    1. Reads the title
    1. Locates the name of the author and title
    1. Determines the nature of the document
    1. Locates the source and date
    1. Determines the main subject
    1. Notes the main ideas
    1. Organizes and synthesizes important ideas
    1. Relates and compares information from various documents
  1. Interprets an illustrated document (e.g. illustration, poster, painting)
    1. Reads the title
    1. Determines the nature of the document
    1. Locates the source and date
    1. Determines the main subject
    1. Determines places, actors, circumstances
  1. Interprets a table and graph
    1. Reads the title
    1. Decodes the legend
    1. Identifies the scale
    1. Identifies the nature of the information
    1. Finds data
  1. Constructs a table and graph
    1. Determines the purpose
    1. Selects information
    1. Indicates and names each entry
    1. Establishes the scale
    1. Indicates the legend
    1. Indicates the data
    1. Provides a title that expresses the purpose

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