Geography (Cycle One)

Print section


This document is complementary to the Geography program. It provides information about the knowledge students must acquire in geography in Secondary Cycle One in order to develop the three competencies prescribed by the program: Understands the organization of a territory , Interprets a territorial issue and Constructs his/her consciousness of global citizenship. It is intended to help teachers with their lesson planning .

In Secondary Cycle One, students study how human beings use, occupy and take possession of space and transform it into a territory. Different types of territories in Québec, Canada and other parts of the world have been selected for study: urban territory (metropolises, cities subject to natural hazards and heritage cities), regional territory (tourist regions, forest regions, energy-producing regions and industrial regions), agricultural territory (agricultural territory in a national space and agricultural territory subject to natural hazards), Native territory and protected territory. Students learn to understand the organization of these territories and interpret issues associated with them. These territories are presented in the same order as in the Geography program, however, they may be taught in any sequence. It is up to teachers and cycle teams to decide how to distribute the content based on their planning needs.

This document contains tables of knowledge associated with the territories studied. The tables are divided into sections that are preceded by a short text describing the type of territory presented, the designated focus and the possible choices that can be made among the territories suggested. The first section situates a territory at the regional or global level. The second section presents the territory’s general characteristics and the third section refers to planning and development of territories that human beings have created. The last section outlines some of the issues associated with a given type of territory or similar territories in other parts of the world. Each statement is accompanied by examples.

Continuity between the elementary and secondary levels

At the elementary level, students became familiar with the concepts of territory, society, organization, change, diversity and time. The Geography, History and Citizenship Education program enabled students to look at the organization of societies and some of the issues resulting from the use and development of a territory in space and time. Students studied the relationships that exist between a society and its territory. They became aware of different territorial phenomena, past and present. They studied aspects of the history and geography of Québec and Canada and began to construct an interpretation of different social and territorial phenomena. They looked at human action in territories, here and elsewhere, and became aware of the diversity of societies. They started using processes to research and work with information as well as other techniques specific to the social sciences.

Some of the knowledge prescribed by the elementary program will continue to be used at the secondary level. When students studied territories, they acquired knowledge and skills that can be applied to the study of certain territories at the secondary level. For example, understanding the organization of societies allowed students at the elementary level to use the concept of resource and acquire knowledge associated with the natural and human characteristics of a given territory. In secondary school, students further develop these concepts, in the study of forest regions, for example.