Science and Technology

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General Education Path

The Technological World

In The Technological World, students acquire and apply scientific and technological knowledge.

In secondary school, students analyze and design increasingly complex technical objects and seek solutions to increasingly sophisticated technological problems. The technical and technological knowledge they acquire helps them understand the objects and factors at play in different scientific issues as well as evaluate possible technological solutions. It also helps them apply knowledge they acquire in other areas of the program, in particular The Material World.

In Secondary III, analyzing and designing technical objects, processes and technological systems associated with the human organism allow students to integrate knowledge associated with The Living World. In Secondary IV, students continue constructing their knowledge by exploring environmental issues. They study the influence of technology with respect to these issues and discover how it can help them understand and improve the world around them.

Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.

Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.

 

Student reinvests knowledge.

Statements preceded by the symbol indicate knowledge specific to the compulsory Science and Technology program. Most of these statements are, however, found in the progression of learning for the optional Science and the Environment program.
Secondary
ST
Cycle One
ST
Cycle Two
EST
Cycle Two
  1. Graphical language1
1 2 3 4 4
Elementary school
Students learn symbols associated with motion and parts and use them to produce or interpret diagrams or drawings.
Secondary school
    1. Diagram of principles (design plan)
      1. Defines a diagram of principles as a representation used to effectively explain the operation of a technical object
     
      1. Associates the functional elements of a technical object with the appropriate diagram of principles
     
      1. Explains the operation of a simple technical object by drawing a diagram illustrating the active forces and the resulting motion
     
      1. Names the subassemblies and parts essential to the operation of a technical object
     
      1. Indicates certain principles of simple machines illustrated in a technical object (e.g. a lever in a wheelbarrow, a wedge in an axe)
     
    1. Construction diagram (technical diagram)
      1. Defines a construction diagram as a representation used to effectively explain the construction and assembly of a technical object
     
      1. Associates the shape and arrangement of parts of technical objects with the appropriate construction diagram
     
      1. Explains the construction of a simple technical object by drawing a diagram illustrating the assembly and arrangement of parts
     
      1. Names the components of a simple technical object
     
      1. Indicates the links and guiding controls on a construction diagram
     
    1. Standards and representations
      1. Chooses the appropriate type of diagram for a given representation (e.g. uses a construction diagram to represent assembly solutions, a diagram of principles to represent the operation of an object)
       
      1. Represents different types of motion related to the operation of an object using the appropriate symbols (rectilinear translation, rotation, helical)
       
    1. Geometric lines
      1. Associates a drawing with a combination of geometric lines (e.g. the drawing of a rounded corner of a table is an arc joined to two sides of a right angle)
       
    1. Basic lines
      1. Names basic lines in a drawing (visible contour, hidden contour, centre, extension, dimension lines)
       
      1. Associates the basic lines in a drawing with the contours and details of a simple part
       
    1. Orthogonal projections
      1. Associates the types of projection with their use (multiview and isometric projections)
       
      1. Interprets drawings representing parts in multiview orthogonal projection
       
      1. Represents simple shapes in multiview orthogonal projection
       
      1. Represents simple shapes in isometric projection
       
      1. Interprets assembly drawings of technical objects consisting of a small number of parts
       
    1. Scales2
      1. Associates scales with their use (actual-size representation, reduction or enlargement of an object)
       
      1. Chooses a simple scale for a drawing (e.g.  1 : 1, 1 : 2, 5 : 1)
       
      1. Takes the scale into account when interpreting drawings
       
    1. Forms of representation
      1. Defines perspective drawing, oblique projection and axonometric projection
       
      1. Sketches simple objects freehand using different forms of representation
       
    1. Axonometric projection: exploded view (reading)
      1. Names the characteristics of an exploded view
       
      1. Explains the purpose of exploded views (projection accompanying the assembly instructions or specifications for an object)
       
    1. Cross-sectional views
      1. Describes the purpose of cross-sectional views in technical drafting
       
      1. Interprets a technical drawing with cross-sectional views
       
      1. Represents a simple shape in a cross-sectional view
       
    1. Dimensioning
      1. Describes the main dimensioning rules (e.g. to make a drawing easy to read, avoid crossing dimensioning lines)
       
      1. Interprets technical drawings including the dimensions required for manufacturing purposes
       
    1. Dimensional tolerances
      1. Defines tolerance as the required manufacturing precision (dimensions indicated on the drawing, along with allowances)
       
  1. Mechanical engineering
1 2 3 4 4
Elementary school
Students describe the characteristics of motion (direction, speed). They describe the effect of a force on an object and on certain materials or structures. They become familiar with simple machines. They identify mechanical parts (e.g. gear assemblies, cams, springs), distinguish between translation and rotation and describe a simple sequence of mechanical parts in motion (e.g. in a door lock, the lever rotates and the motion of the bolt is rectilinear translation).
Secondary school
  1. Forces and motion
ST ST EST
    1. Types of motion
      1. Identifies parts that move in a specific way in a technical object (rectilinear translation, rotation, helical)
     
    1. Effects of a force
      1. Explains the effects of a force in a technical object (change in the motion of an object, distortion of a material)
     
    1. Simple machines
      1. Identifies wheels, inclined planes and levers in simple technical objects
        (e.g. a wheelbarrow is made up of a second-class lever and a wheel)
     
      1. Describes qualitatively the mechanical advantages of different types of levers (first-class, second-class, third-class) in different applications
     
  1. Technological systems
ST ST EST
    1. System
      1. Identifies a system (set of connected elements that interact with each other) in a technical object or technological application
     
      1. Describes the overall function of a technological system
     
      1. Names the inputs and outputs of a technological system
     
      1. Names the processes and control elements of a technological system
     
    1. Components of a system
      1. Describes the role of the components of a technological system (e.g. explains the role of the parts of a lighting system)
     
    1. Energy transformations3
      1. Associates energy with radiation, heat or motion
     
      1. Defines energy transformations
     
      1. Identifies energy transformations in a technical object or technological system
     
  1. Engineering
ST ST EST
    1. Basic mechanical functions (links, guiding control)
      1. Describes the role of links and guiding controls in a technical object
     
      1. Identifies a guiding control in a technical object, as well as the related links (e.g. a pizza wheel is guided by a pivot, which links it to the handle)
     
    1. Typical mechanical links
      1. Describes the advantages and disadvantages of different types of links
       
      1. Names the types of links used in a technical object (e.g. the spiral link between a jar and its lid)
       
    1. Linking of mechanical parts
      1. Describes the characteristics of the links in a technical object (direct or indirect, rigid or flexible, removable or permanent, partial or complete)
       
      1. Determines the desirable characteristics of links in the design of a technical object
       
      1. Judges the choice of assembly solutions in a technical object
       
    1. Degree of freedom of a part
      1. Explains the purpose of limiting motion (degree of freedom) in a technical object (e.g. some hinges limit how far a cupboard door can open, preventing it from hitting the wall)
       
    1. Typical functions
      1. Defines the typical functions (linking, guiding, sealing, lubricating)
       
      1. Associates a typical function with certain parts of a technical object
       
      1. Explains the choice of a type of link in a technical object (e.g. using a screw makes it possible to attach and remove a battery case)
     
    1. Guiding controls
      1. Explains the choice of a type of guiding control in a technical object (e.g. the slide guides a drawer and reduces friction)
       
    1. Adhesion and friction of parts
      1. Describes the advantages and disadvantages of the adhesion and friction of parts in a technical object
       
    1. Motion transmission systems
      1. Identifies motion transmission systems in technical objects
     
    1. Function, components and use of motion transmission systems
      1. Names motion transmission systems in technical objects (friction gears, pulleys and belt, gear assembly, sprocket wheels and chain, wheel and worm gear)
       
      1. Describes the functions of the components of a motion transmission system (e.g. in a bicycle, the gear assembly on the crankset is the driving unit, the sprocket wheel on the rear wheel is the receiving unit, and the chain is the intermediate unit)
       
      1. Describes the speed changes or reversibility of a motion transmission system (e.g. a sprocket wheel that is replaced by a smaller wheel or a wheel with fewer teeth increases rotation speed)
       
    1. Construction and characteristics of motion transmission systems
      1. Explains the choice of a motion transmission system in a technical object (e.g. using a gear assembly rather than friction gears to get better engine torque and avoid slipping)
       
    1. Motion transformation systems
      1. Identifies motion transformation systems in technical objects
     
    1. Function, components and use of motion transformation systems
      1. Names motion transformation systems in technical objects (e.g. screw gear system, cam and roller, connecting rod and crank, rack and pinion)
       
      1. Describes the functions of the components of a motion transformation system (e.g. in a double-lever corkscrew, the pinion is the driving unit and the rack is the receiving unit)
       
      1. Describes speed changes or the reversibility of a motion transformation system (e.g. the cam and roller is a nonreversible motion transformation system)
       
    1. Construction and characteristics of motion transformation systems
      1. Explains the choice of a motion transformation system (screw gear system, cams, connecting rods, cranks, slides, rotating slider crank mechanisms, rack-and-pinion drive) in a technical object (e.g. most car jacks use a screw gear system rather than a rack-and-pinion system, because the force of the arm on the small crank provides more thrust and because, given that it is nonreversible, the system is safer)
       
      1. Explains the choice of a motion transformation system (screw gear, cams, connecting rods, cranks, slider-crank mechanism, rack-and-pinion drive, eccentric) in a technical object
       
    1. Speed changes
      1. Uses systems that allow for speed changes in the design of technical objects
       
  1. Electrical engineering
1 2 3 4 4
Elementary school
Students describe energy transformations and recognize them in different devices. They describe ways of transforming energy resources into electricity (e.g. wind turbines transform wind energy into electricity).
Secondary school
    1. Power supply
      1. Defines power supply as the ability to generate electrical current
       
      1. Determines the source of current in technical objects with an electrical circuit (e.g. chemical battery, solar cell, alternator, thermocouple, piezoelectric)
       
    1. Conduction, insulation and protection
      1. Defines conduction as the ability to conduct electricity
       
      1. Distinguishes between electrical conductors and insulators in a technical object
       
      1. Describes the role of a protective device in a circuit (fuse, breaker)
       
      1. Analyzes the factors that affect electrical conductivity (section, length, nature, temperature of conductor)
       
      1. Uses the colour code to determine the electrical resistance of a resistor
       
      1. Describes the operation of a printed circuit
       
    1. Control
      1. Defines control as the ability to control the travel of electrical current
       
      1. Describes different types of switches (lever, pushbutton, flip-flop, magnetic control)
       
      1. Distinguishes between unipolar and bipolar switches
       
      1. Distinguishes between unidirectional and bidirectional switches
       
    1. Transformation of energy (electricity and light, heat, vibration, magnetism)
      1. Associates the transformation of energy with different components of a circuit (e.g. bulbs transform electrical energy into light and heat)
       
      1. Describes the energy transformations that take place in electrical or electronic appliances (e.g. in a cell phone, electricity is transformed into light for the display and vibrations for the sound)
       
    1. Other functions
      1. Describes the function of certain electronic components (condenser, diode)
       
  1. Materials
1 2 3 4 4
Elementary school
Students describe the physical properties of certain materials.
Secondary school
  1. Material resources
ST ST EST
    1. Raw materials
      1. Associates raw materials with the unprocessed materials used in an industry (e.g. bauxite is the raw material used in aluminum smelters)
     
    1. Materials
      1. Names the materials present in a technical object (e.g. a cooking pot is composed of two materials: a metal used to make the container and plastic used to coat the handle)
     
      1. Determines the origins of the materials present in a technical object (animal, plant, mineral, wood)
     
    1. Equipment
      1. Defines tools and equipment as the elements needed to manufacture an object (machining, control, assembly)
     
  1. Mechanical properties of materials
ST ST EST
    1. Constraints
      1. Describes the constraints to which different technical objects are subject: tension, compression, torsion (e.g. the top of a beam is subject to compression)
       
      1. Describes the constraints to which different technical objects are subject: tension, compression, torsion, deflection, shearing (e.g. a diving board is subject to deflection)
       
    1. Mechanical properties
      1. Describes the mechanical properties of different materials (hardness, ductility, elasticity, malleability, corrosion resistance)
       
    1. Characteristics of mechanical properties
      1. Explains the choice of a material based on its properties (e.g. the malleability of aluminum makes it useful for making thin-walled containers)
       
    1. Types and properties
      1. Associates the use of different types of materials with their respective properties
        • Ferrous alloys (cast iron is harder than steel)
       
        • Nonferrous metals and alloys (the wire used in a dental appliance can be made of a nickel and titanium alloy, which has shape memory)
       
        • Wood and modified wood (e.g. oak is used for flooring because it is a hard wood that is shock and wear resistant)
       
        • Plastics: thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics (e.g. thermoplastics are used for prostheses because of their corrosion resistance and lightness; Bakelite, a thermosetting plastic, is used to mould electrical parts because it is a good electrical insulator)
       
        • Ceramics (e.g. ceramics are used in ovens because they are very hard and heat and wear resistant)
       
        • Composites (e.g. carbon fibre is used for hockey sticks because of its hardness, resilience and lightness)
       
    1. Modification of properties
      1. Describes different treatments to prevent degradation of materials (e.g. metal plating, antirust treatments, painting)
       
    1. Heat treatments
      1. Defines heat treatments as ways of changing the properties of materials
        (e.g. quenching increases hardness but fragility as well)
       
  1. Manufacturing
1 2 3 4 4
Elementary school
Students are introduced to the design and construction of instruments, tools, machines, structures (e.g. bridges, towers), systems (e.g. water filtration), models (e.g. glider) and simple electrical circuits. They trace parts and cut them out of different materials using the appropriate tools. They use a variety of assembly methods (e.g. screws, glue, nails, round-head fasteners, nuts) and tools to obtain an aesthetic finish.
Secondary school
    1. Specifications
      1. Defines specifications as a set of constraints associated with the design of a technical object
     
      1. Evaluates a prototype or technical object based on the environments described in the specifications (human, technical, industrial, economic, physical, environmental)
     
    1. Manufacturing process sheet
      1. Defines a manufacturing process sheet as a set of steps to follow to machine the parts that make up a technical object
     
      1. Follows a process and assembly sheet to construct an object consisting of few components or to construct part of that object
     
    1. Shaping
      1. Machines and tools
        • Associates shaping processes with the types of materials used
          (e.g. injection blow moulding is used to shape plastics)
       
        • Determines the appropriate shaping techniques based on direct observation of technical objects (e.g. some table legs are turned on a lathe)
       
    1. Manufacturing
      1. Characteristics of laying out, drilling, tapping and threading
        • Associates laying out (marking) with saving materials, shaping techniques and the types of materials to be shaped
       
        • Describes the characteristics of the tools needed to shape a material to be machined (e.g. the tip of a metal drill is conical, while that of a wood drill is double fluted)
       
    1. Measurement
      1. Direct measurement
        • Explains the purpose of direct measurement (using a ruler) to control the machining of a part
       
        • Explains the choice of the direct measurement instrument used
          (a vernier caliper is more precise than a ruler)
       
  1. Biotechnology
1 2 3 4 4
Elementary school
Students do not address any concepts associated with biotechnology.
Secondary school
    1. Processes
      1. Pasteurization
        • Describes the pasteurization process
       
        • Describes the purpose of pasteurization (preservation of food and its nutritional properties)
       
      1. Manufacture of vaccines
        • Describes the process for manufacturing vaccines
       
      1. Assisted reproduction
        • Describes different assisted-reproduction processes
       
        • Describes the purpose of artificial insemination (animal reproduction, an answer to human infertility, preservation of the gene pool)
       
      1. Cell cultures
        • Names parameters to be controlled in the case of cultured cells (sources of mother cells, growth, preservation, characteristics of cell media, ethical standards)
       
      1. Genetic transformation (genetically modified organisms)
        • Names the main advantages and disadvantages of genetic transformation
       
      1. Cloning
        • Defines cloning as a reproductive process that results in an identical copy of an organism, a tissue or a cell, whether genetically modified or not
       
        • Describes the main advantages and disadvantages of cloning
       
      1. Wastewater treatment
        • Describes treatments used to decontaminate wastewater
       
      1. Biodegradation of pollutants
        • Describes ways to promote biodegradation of pollutants
          (e.g. phytoremediation)
       
1.  See Techniques, Technology, Graphic communication (Techniques - Technology, 1).
2.  See Techniques, Technology, Graphic communication, Using scales (Techniques - Technology, 1, d).
3.  For Cycle Two concepts related to Energy transformations, see The Material World, Changes, Transformation of energy (MW, B, 5).

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