Science and Technology

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General Education Path

Techniques

The techniques listed below are divided into three categories, depending on whether they apply to science or technology or both. Many of them require the use of instruments and tools or chemicals. Safety in the workshop and laboratory should be a constant concern.

Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.

Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.

 

Student reinvests knowledge.

Statements preceded by the symbol indicate knowledge specific to the compulsory Science and Technology program. Most of these statements are, however, found in the progression of learning for the optional Science and the Environment program.
Secondary
ST
Cycle One
ST
Cycle Two
EST
Cycle Two
  1. Technology
1 2 3 4 4
Elementary school
Students use some symbols associated with motion and electrical and mechanical parts. They interpret diagrams or simple drawings containing symbols. By designing technical objects, they become familiar with the use of simple machines (e.g. lever, inclined plane, pulley, wheel). They trace parts and cut them out of different materials. They are introduced to the safe use of tools (e.g. pliers, screwdriver, hammer, wrench, template) and different assembly methods (e.g. screws, glue, nails, round-head fasteners, nuts). They pay attention to finishing.
Secondary school
  1. Graphic communication1
ST ST EST
    1. Doing a technical drawing
      1. Chooses the best view for an elevation drawing of a technical object
     
      1. Represents the visible edges using solid lines
     
      1. Represents the hidden edges using dotted lines
     
      1. Indicates the overall external dimensions of an object on a drawing
     
    1. Reading plans
      1. Associates views with the sides of a technical object
     
      1. Associates lines with the edges of a technical object
     
    1. Drawing diagrams2
      1. Chooses the best view to describe a technical object
 
      1. Uses different colours for each part of a technical object
     
      1. Indicates all the information needed to explain the operation or construction of an object
 
    1. Using scales3
      1. Associates real measurements with each of the dimensions in a drawing
     
      1. Reduces or multiplies the dimensions of a technical object based on the scale
     
      1. Dimensions multiview orthogonal projections in accordance with the main dimensioning rules
       
    1. Using drawing instruments
      1. Uses drawing instruments (e.g. ruler, square) to make diagrams
     
    1. Constructing a graph using instruments
      1. Uses instruments to construct a graph (e.g. multiview orthogonal projection, isometric representation, perspective drawing)
     
  1. Manufacturing
ST ST EST
    1. Safely using machines and tools4
      1. Uses tools safely (e.g. retractable utility knife, hammer, screwdriver, pliers)
     
      1. Uses machine tools safely (band saw, drill, sander)
     
    1. Measuring and laying out
      1. Identifies the unit of measurement on the instrument
     
      1. Positions the measuring instrument to obtain reliable reference points
     
      1. Adopts the appropriate position for reading an instrument
     
      1. Marks the materials to be shaped using a pencil or punch
     
    1. Machining and forming
      1. Chooses the appropriate materials, tools, techniques and processes
     
      1. Draws the necessary reference lines
     
      1. Immobilizes the part to be formed
     
      1. Forms the part in accordance with the steps in the following machining processes: sawing, drilling, sanding, filing
     
      1. Forms the part in accordance with the steps in the following machining processes: stripping, splicing, soldering
     
    1. Finishing
      1. Sands the sides or deburrs the edges of each part after forming
     
      1. Uses the appropriate finish (stain, paint)
     
      1. Grinds, polishes, hammers or chisels metal parts
     
    1. Assembling
      1. Marks the references (holes, points or guidelines)
     
      1. Immobilizes parts during gluing
     
      1. Drills to the diameter of the screws, nails or rivets used
     
      1. Countersinks the openings for countersunk screws
     
    1. Assembling and disassembling
      1. Identifies and gathers the parts and hardware
     
      1. Chooses the appropriate tools
     
      1. For disassembly, numbers and records the location of the parts
     
      1. In the case of electrical circuits, identifies and gathers the electrical components
       
      1. In the case of electronic circuits, identifies and gathers the electronic components
       
      1. Chooses and places the electrical components in sequence based on the circuit diagram
       
      1. Chooses and arranges the electronic components based on the circuit diagram
       
      1. Connects the components using wire, connectors or solders
       
    1. Performing verification and control tasks
      1. Evaluates the dimensions of a part during and after construction using a ruler
     
      1. Compares the real dimensions of a part with the specifications (e.g. draft, drawing, technical sheet)
     
      1. Uses a template to verify the conformity of a part
     
      1. Evaluates the dimensions of a part during and after construction using vernier callipers
       
    1. Making a part
      1. Makes a part using the appropriate techniques
     
  1. Science
1 2 3 4 4
Elementary school
Students become familiar with the use of observational instruments (magnifying glass, stereomicroscope, binoculars) and simple measuring instruments (ruler, eyedropper, graduated cylinder, balance, thermometer, chronometer).
Secondary school
    1. Safely using laboratory materials and equipment5
      1. Uses laboratory materials and equipment safely (e.g. allows hotplate to cool, uses beaker tongs)
      1. Handles chemicals safely (e.g. uses a spatula and pipette filler)
    1. Separating mixtures
      1. Separates heterogeneous mixtures using sedimentation and decantation
     
      1. Separates heterogeneous mixtures using filtration
     
      1. Separates different aqueous solutions using evaporation or distillation
     
    1. Designing and creating an environment
      1. Uses environmental design and construction techniques that respect the characteristics of the habitat (e.g. terrarium, aquarium, composting medium)
     
    1. Using measuring instruments
      1. Adopts the appropriate position for reading an instrument
     
      1. Measures the mass of a substance using a balance
     
      1. Measures the volume of a liquid using the appropriate graduated cylinder
     
      1. Measures the volume of an insoluble solid using water displacement
     
      1. Measures temperature using a graduated thermometer
     
      1. Uses measuring instruments appropriately (e.g. ammeter, volumetric flask)
     
      1. Uses vernier calipers appropriately
       
    1. Using observational instruments
      1. Uses observational instruments appropriately (e.g. magnifying glass, stereomicroscope, binoculars, microscope)
     
    1. Preparing solutions
      1. Prepares an aqueous solution of a specific concentration given a solid solute
       
      1. Prepares an aqueous solution of a specific concentration given a concentrated aqueous solution
       
    1. Collecting samples
      1. Collects samples appropriately (e.g. sterilizes the container, uses a spatula, refrigerates the sample)
     
  1. Techniques common to Science and Technology
1 2 3 4 4
    1. Verifying the repeatability, accuracy and sensitivity of measuring instruments
      1. Takes the same measurement several times to check the repeatability of the instrument used
       
      1. Carries out the required operations to ensure the accuracy of a measuring instrument (e.g. cleans and calibrates a balance, dries out a graduated cylinder, rinses and calibrates a pH-meter)
       
      1. Chooses a measuring instrument by taking into account the sensitivity of the instrument (e.g. uses a 25-mL graduated cylinder rather than a 100-mL one to measure 18 mL of water)
       
    1. Interpreting the results of measurement
      1. Determines the error attributable to a measuring instrument (e.g. the error in a measurement made using a graduated cylinder is provided by the manufacturer or corresponds to half of the smallest division on the scale
       
      1. Estimates the errors associated with the user and the environment when taking a measurement
       
      1. Expresses a result with a significant number of digits that takes into account the errors related to the measure (e.g. a measurement of 10.35 cm taken with a ruler graduated in millimetres should be expressed as 10.4 cm or 104 mm)
       
1.  See The Technological World, Graphical language (TW, A).
2.  The progression of learning associated with these techniques is characterized by the increasing complexity of the objects to be represented.
3.  See The Technological World, Graphical language, Scales (TW, A, g).
4.  When the teacher introduces a new technique, he or she should explain the related safety rules and repeat them often. After several practice sessions, students should apply the rules without being reminded.
5.  When the teacher introduces a new technique, he or she should explain the related safety rules and repeat them often. After several practice sessions, students should apply the rules without being reminded.

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