Physics - Secondary V Optional Program

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It can be useful to refer to the techniques related to science and technology that were covered earlier.1 The compulsory techniques for physics are divided into two categories, depending on whether they are related to laboratory work or measurement. Many of them require the use of instruments and tools. Safety in the workshop and laboratory should be a constant concern for users.

Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.

Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.


Student reinvests knowledge.



  1. Techniques related to laboratory work
3 4 3 4 5
  1. Safely using laboratory or workshop materials and equipment 2
    1. Uses laboratory materials and equipment safely (e.g. never aims a laser beam toward a person's face, makes sure the apparatus is properly secured)
  1. Using observational instruments
    1. Uses observational instruments appropriately (e.g. photographic camera, video camera, probe)
  1. Measurement techniques
3 4 3 4 5
  1. Verifying the repeatability, accuracy and sensitivity of measuring instruments
    1. Takes the same measurement several times to check the repeatability of the instrument used
    1. Carries out the required operations to ensure the accuracy of a measuring instrument (e.g. calibrates a probe, positions a measuring instrument properly in the setup)
    1. Chooses a measuring instrument by taking into account the sensitivity of the instrument (e.g. uses a stopwatch instead of an analogue clock)
  1. Interpreting the results of measurement
    1. Determines the error attributable to a measuring instrument (e.g. the error in a measurement made using a dynamometer corresponds to half of the smallest division on the scale, the error in a measurement made using a measuring tape correcponds to the value of the smallest division on the scale)
    1. Estimates the errors associated with the user and the environment when taking a measurement (e.g. in the case of a stopwatch, the error associated with reaction time is estimated to be 0.1 seconds)
    1. Expresses a result with a significant number of digits that takes into account the errors related to the measure (e.g. a measurement of 10.35 cm taken with a ruler graduated in millimetres should be expressed as 10.4 cm or 104 mm)
    1. Expresses the value of a measurement with its absolute or relative uncertainty (e.g. 24.1 ± 0.1 cm3 or 24.1 cm3 ± 0.4 %)
1.  See the Techniques section in the Progression of Learning in Secondary School (Secondary I to IV) documents.
2.  When a teacher introduces a new technique, he or she should explain the related safety rules and repeat them often. After several practice sessions, students should apply the rules without being reminded.

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