Physics - Secondary V Optional Program

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The strategies listed below are fundamental to the approaches used in science and technology. They can be applied in a variety of increasingly complex contexts and are therefore inclusive. Thus, students build on the strategies they learned in elementary school. New strategies are added, including analytical strategies, which are adapted to students' level of cognitive development.

Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.

Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.


Student reinvests knowledge.


Cycle One



  1. Exploration strategies
  3 4 3 4 5
  1. Studying a problem or a phenomenon from different points of view (e.g. social, environmental, historical, economic)
  1. Distinguishing between the different types of information useful for solving the problem
  1. Referring to similar problems that have already been solved
  1. Becoming aware of his or her previous representations
  1. Drawing a diagram for the problem or illustrating it
  1. Formulating questions
  1. Putting forward hypotheses (e.g. individually, in teams, as a class)
  1. Exploring various ways of solving the problem
  1. Anticipating the results of his or her approach
  1. Imagining solutions to a problem in light of his or her explanations
  1. Taking into account the constraints involved in solving a problem or making an object (e.g. specifications, available resources, time allotted)
  1. Examining his or her mistakes in order to identify their source
  1. Using different types of reasoning (e.g. induction, deduction, inference, comparison, classification)
  1. Using empirical approaches (e.g. trial and error, analysis, exploration using one's senses)
  1. Ensuring that the procedure is appropriate and safe, and making the necessary adjustments
  1. Collecting as much scientific, technological and contextual information as possible to define a problem or predict patterns
  1. Generalizing on the basis of several structurally similar cases
  1. Developing various scenarios
  1. Considering various points of view on scientific or technological issues
  1. Instrumentation strategies
  3 4 3 4 5
  1. Using different sources of information (e.g. books, newspapers, Web sites, magazines, experts)
  1. Validating sources of information
  1. Using technical design to illustrate a solution (e.g. diagrams, sketches, technical drawings)
  1. Using different tools for recording information (e.g. diagrams, notes, graphs, procedures, logbook)
  1. Using a variety of observational techniques and tools
  1. Selecting suitable techniques or tools for observation
  1. Analytical strategies
  3 4 3 4 5
  1. Identifying the constraints and important elements related to the problem-solving situation
  1. Dividing a complex problem into simpler subproblems
  1. Using different types of reasoning (e.g. inductive and deductive reasoning, comparison, classification, prioritization) in order to process information
  1. Reasoning by analogy in order to process information and adapt scientific and technological knowledge
  1. Selecting relevant criteria to help him or her determine where he or she stands on a scientific or technological issue
  1. Communication strategies
  3 4 3 4 5
  1. Using different means of communication to propose explanations or solutions (e.g. oral presentation, written presentation, procedure)
  1. Organizing information for a presentation (e.g. tables, diagrams, graphs)
  1. Exchanging information
  1. Comparing different possible explanations for or solutions to a problem in order to assess their relevance (e.g. full-group discussion)
  1. Using tools to display information in various formats (e.g. data tables, graphs, diagrams)

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