Statistics, which is used to gather, process and analyze data regarding a population,^{1} is a valuable decisionmaking tool in many fields. This branch of mathematics is based on concepts and processes related to probability, particularly as regards sampling.
In elementary school, students were introduced to descriptive statistics, which allowed them to summarize raw data in a clear and reliable way. They conducted surveys, i.e. they learned how to formulate questions, gather data and organize it using tables, and interpreted and displayed data using bar graphs, pictographs and brokenline graphs. They also obtained relevant information using circle graphs, and calculated and interpreted the arithmetic mean of a distribution.
In Secondary Cycle One, students carry out studies using sample surveys and censuses. They acquire the tools they need to process the data they may or may not have gathered and extract information from these data. They learn about circle graphs as a possible method of data representation. They choose the graph(s) that will best illustrate a situation. They learn to highlight information such as minimum value, maximum value, range and mean and look for potential sources of bias.
In Secondary Cycle Two, descriptive statistics is used to introduce students to inferences. The situations dealt with allow students to gather, organize and represent data using the most appropriate graph, and determine certain statistical measures such as measures of central tendency, of position and of dispersion. They interpret data by observing their distribution (type, range, centre, groups), and check whether the distribution includes outliers that could influence certain measures or conclusions. They compare distributions, using appropriate measures of central tendency and of dispersion. They learn how to interpret a correlation qualitatively, using an approximate value of the correlation coefficient or quantitavely, by calculating its exact value using technological tools, if necessary.
The following tables present the learning content associated with statistics. By basing themselves on the concepts and processes targeted, students develop the three competencies of the program, which in turn enable students to better integrate the mathematical concepts and processes presented.
Analyzing and making decisions about one or twovariable distributions, using statistical tools 

Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.
Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.
Student reinvests knowledge. 
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1.  A population is a set of entities (e.g. individuals of a species, facts) included in a statistical study. 