Mathematics

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Arithmetic

In elementary school,1 students developed their understanding of numbers and operations involving natural numbers less than 1 000 000, fractions and decimals up to thousandths. They identified the properties of operations as well as the relationships between them and learned to follow the order of operations in simple sequences of operations involving natural numbers. They were introduced to the concept of integers and performed operations with natural numbers and decimals mentally, in writing and using technological tools. They also used objects and diagrams to perform certain operations involving fractions.

In Secondary Cycle One, students continue to develop their number sense, to perform operations on written numbers in decimal and fractional notation, and to further their understanding of the processes associated with these operations. The numbers are positive or negative, without restrictions as to the order of magnitude. Students also develop proportional reasoning, an essential concept that has many applications both within and outside mathematics. For example, students use percentages (calculating a certain percentage of a number and the value corresponding to 100 per cent) in various situations involving discounts, taxes, increases, decreases, etc. They also make scale drawings and represent data using circle graphs. They look for unknown values in algebraic or geometric situations involving similarity transformations, arc lengths, sector areas or unit conversions.

In Secondary Cycle Two, students assimilate the concept of real numbers (rational and irrational), particularly in situations involving exponents, radicals or logarithms.

The following tables present the learning content associated with arithmetic. By basing themselves on the concepts and processes targeted, students develop the three competencies of the program, which in turn enable students to better integrate the mathematical concepts and processes presented.

1.  Given the scope of this branch in elementary school, we recommend that you consult the document Progression of Learning in Elementary School — Mathematics for more information on the concepts and processes acquired by students.