Chemistry - Secondary V Optional Program

Energy changes in reactions

Studying energy changes in reactions gives students the opportunity to acquire scientific and technical knowledge of phenomena and applications1 involving endothermic and exothermic reactions.

Over the course of their secondary school education, students have explored increasingly complex phenomena, problems and applications. They have acquired knowledge related to The Material World, The Living World, The Earth and Space and The Technological World. By using the experimental method, modelling and carrying out analysis, they are able to describe, understand and explain the laws and models governing energy changes in reactions. Students learn to apply this new knowledge in a variety of contexts to explain phenomena or make predictions. In this way, they acquire a better understanding of energy changes in the world around us and of the related applications. 

Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.

Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.

 

Student reinvests knowledge.

Secondary
AST AST

SE
ST ST

EST
CHE
3 4 3 4 5
Secondary Cycle One
Chemical Change
  • Describes the indicators of a chemical change (formation of a precipitate, effervescence, colour change, heat, light)
Atom
  • Defines the atom as the basic unit of the molecule
Molecule
  • Represents the formation of a molecule using Dalton's atomic model
Secondary Cycle Two
Only those concepts specific to the Chemistry program are identified by a number.
Light blue shading indicates that the student acquired this knowledge in Secondary III or IV.
Forms of energy
  • Defines joule as the unit of measurement for energy
       
Combustion
  • Describes the perceivable manifestations of rapid combustion (e.g. heat, light)
     
Endothermic and exothermic reactions
  • Distinguishes an endothermic reaction from an exothermic reaction according to perceptible signs (e.g. temperature variations, emission of light)
     
  • Distinguishes an endothermic reaction from an exothermic reaction according to the position of the energy term in the chemical equation
     
Distinction between heat and temperature
  • Describes heat as a manifestation of energy
     
  • Describes the relationship between heat and temperature
     
Concept of the mole
  • Defines the mole as the unit of measure of the amount of a substance
     
  • Expresses an amount of a substance in moles
     
  1. Energy diagram
    1. Produces an energy diagram representing the energy balance for a chemical reaction
       
    1. Interprets the energy diagram of a chemical reaction
       
  1. Activation energy
    1. Determines the activation energy for a reaction using its energy diagram
       
  1. Enthalpy change
    1. Explains qualitatively the enthalpy change of substances during a chemical reaction
       
    1. Determines the enthalpy change of a reaction, using its energy diagram
       
Decomposition and synthesis
  • Represents a decomposition or synthesis reaction using the particle model
       
  • Associates known chemical reactions with decomposition or synthesis reactions
    (e.g. respiration, photosynthesis, combustion, digestion)
     
Oxidation
  • Represents an oxidation reaction using the particle model
     
  • Associates known chemical reactions with oxidation reactions (e.g. combustion, corrosion)
     
  • Associates a chemical equation in which oxygen is one of the reactants with one of the possible cases of an oxidation reaction
     
Precipitation
  • Describes the visible manifestation of precipitation (formation of a solid deposit after two aqueous solutions are mixed)
     
  • Represents a precipitation reaction using the particle model
     
Combustion
  • Describes the perceivable manifestations of rapid combustion (e.g. heat, light)
     
Acid-base neutralization reaction
  • Gives examples of acid-base neutralization reactions (e.g. adding lime to neutralize the acidity of a lake)
       
  • Names the products formed during acid-base neutralization (salt and water)
       
  • Recognizes an acid-base neutralization from its equation
       
Relationship between thermal energy, specific heat capacity, mass and temperature variation
  • Describes qualitatively the relationship between the change in thermal energy (quantity of heat) of a substance, its mass, its specific heat capacity and the variations in temperature to which it is exposed
     
  • Applies the mathematical relationship between thermal energy, mass, specific heat capacity and temperature variation (ΔE = Q = mcΔT)
     
  1. Molar heat of reaction
    1. Determines the molar heat of a reaction using a calorimeter
       
    1. Determines the molar heat of a reaction using Hess’s Law or bonding enthalpies
       
1. “Application” is understood to mean a technical object, a system, a product or a process.

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