Chemistry - Secondary V Optional Program

Techniques

It can be useful to refer to the techniques related to science and technology that were covered earlier.1 The techniques listed below are divided into two categories, depending on whether they are related to laboratory work or measurement. Many of them involve using instruments and tools or handling chemicals. Safety in the workshop and laboratory should be a constant concern for users.

Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.

Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.

 

Student reinvests knowledge.

Secondary
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  1. Techniques related to laboratory work
3 4 3 4 5
  1. Safely using laboratory or workshop materials and equipment2
    1. Uses laboratory materials and equipment safely (e.g. allows hotplate to cool, uses beaker tongs)
 
    1. Handles chemicals safely (e.g. uses a spatula and pipette filler)
 
  1. Using observational instruments
    1. Uses observational instruments appropriately (e.g. magnifying glass, stereomicroscope, microscope)
         
  1. Preparing solutions
    1. Prepares an aqueous solution of a specific concentration given a solid solute
       
    1. Prepares an aqueous solution of a specific concentration given a concentrated aqueous solution
       
  1. Collecting samples
    1. Collects samples appropriately (e.g. sterilizes the container, uses a spatula, refrigerates the sample)
     
  1. Measurement techniques
3 4 3 4 5
  1. Verifying the repeatability, accuracy and sensitivity of measuring instruments
    1. Takes the same measurement several times to check the repeatability of the instrument used
       
    1. Carries out the required operations to ensure the accuracy of a measuring instrument (e.g. cleans and calibrates a balance, dries out a graduated cylinder, rinses and calibrates a pH-meter)
       
    1. Chooses a measuring instrument by taking into account the sensitivity of the instrument (e.g. uses a 25-mL graduated cylinder rather than a 100-mL one to measure 18 mL of water)
       
  1. Interpreting the results of measurement
    1. Determines the error attributable to a measuring instrument (e.g. the error in a measurement made using a graduated cylinder is provided by the manufacturer or corresponds to half of the smallest division on the scale
       
    1. Estimates the errors associated with the user and the environment when taking a measurement
       
    1. Expresses a result with a significant number of digits that takes into account the errors related to the measure (e.g. a measurement of 10.35 cm taken with a ruler graduated in millimetres should be expressed as 10.4 cm or 104 mm)
       
    1. Expresses the value of a measurement with its absolute or relative uncertainty (e.g. 24.1 ± 0.1 cm3 or 24.1 cm3 ± 0.4 %)
       
1.  See the Techniques section in the Progression of Learning in Secondary School (Secondary I to IV) documents.
2.  When the teacher introduces a new technique, he or she should explain the related safety rules and repeat them often. After several practice sessions, students should apply the rules without being reminded.

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