Chemistry - Secondary V Optional Program

Gases

Studying the behaviour of gases gives students the opportunity to acquire scientific and technical knowledge of phenomena and applications1 that involve the physical properties of gases.

Over the course of their secondary school education, students have explored increasingly complex phenomena, problems and applications. They have acquired knowledge related to The Material World, The Living World, The Earth and Space and The Technological World. By using the experimental method, modelling and carrying out analysis, they are able to describe, understand and explain the laws and models governing the behaviour of gases. Students learn to apply this new knowledge in a variety of contexts to explain phenomena or make predictions. In this way, they acquire a better understanding of the behaviour of gases in the world around us and of the related applications.

Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.

Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.

 

Student reinvests knowledge.

Secondary
AST AST

SE
ST ST

EST
CHE
3 4 3 4 5
Secondary Cycle One
Mass
  • Defines the concept of mass
Volume
  • Defines the concept of volume
Temperature
  • Describes the effect of heat on the degree of agitation of particles
  • Defines temperature as a measurement of the degree of agitation of particles
States of matter
  • Names the different phase changes of matter
Characteristic properties
  • Associates a characteristic property of a substance or material with its use (e.g. metal is used to make pots because it is a good conductor of heat)
Physical Changes
  • Recognizes different physical changes
Molecule
  • Describes a molecule using Dalton's atomic model (combination of atoms linked by chemical bonds)
Secondary Cycle Two
Only those concepts specific to the Chemistry program are identified by a number.
Light blue shading indicates that the student acquired this knowledge in Secondary III or IV.
  1. Chemical properties of gases
    1. Reactivity
      1. Associates the use of certain gases in various applications with their chemical reactivity (e.g. argon in light bulbs, nitrogen in bags of chips, acetylene in welding torches)
       
Compressible and incompressible fluids
  • Distinguishes between compressible and incompressible fluids
     
  1. Physical properties of gases
    1. Kinetic theory
      1. Explains the macroscopic behaviour of a gas (e.g. compressibility, expansion, diffusion) using kinetic theory
       
Pressure
  • Defines pressure as the force exerted by particles when they collide with a constricting surface
     
  • Describes qualitatively the main factors that affect the pressure exerted by a fluid
     
Relationship between pressure and volume
  • Describes qualitatively the relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas
    (e.g. inhaling and exhaling, bicycle pump)
     
Avogadro’s number
  • Expresses a quantity of particles using Avogadro’s number
       
Concept of the mole
  • Defines the mole as the unit of measure of the amount of a substance
     
  • Expresses an amount of a substance in moles
     
    1. General gas law
      1. Determines the relationship between the pressure of a gas and its volume when the temperature and number of moles of gas are kept constant
       
      1. Determines the relationship between the pressure of a gas and its temperature when the number of moles of gas and the volume are kept constant
       
      1. Determines the relationship between the volume of a gas and its temperature when the pressure and the number of moles of gas are kept constant
       
      1. Determines the relationship between the pressure of a gas and the number of moles of that gas when the volume and temperature are kept constant
       
      1. Determines the relationship between the volume of a gas and the number of moles of that gas when the temperature and pressure are kept constant
       
      1. Applies the mathematical relationship between the pressure, volume, number of moles and temperature of a gas (p1V1/n1T1 = p2V2/n2T2)
       
    1. Ideal gas law
      1. Explains qualitatively the relationship between the factors affecting the behaviour of gases (pressure, volume, number of moles, temperature) in a given situation (e.g. a balloon exposed to cold, the operation of a bicycle pump)
       
      1. Applies the mathematical relationship between the pressure, volume and number of moles of a gas, the ideal gas constant and the temperature of a gas (pV = nRT)
       
    1. Dalton’s law
      1. Explains qualitatively the law of partial pressures
       
      1. Applies the mathematical relationship between the total pressure of a mixture of gases and the partial pressures of the component gases
        (ptotal = ppA + ppB + ppC + …)
       
    1. Avogadro’s hypothesis
      1. Uses Avogadro’s hypothesis to predict the number of molecules in equal volumes of gases subjected to the same temperature and pressure
       
    1. Molar volume of a gas
      1. Calculates the molar volume of a gas at standard temperature and pressure
       
      1. Calculates the molar volume of a gas at standard ambient temperature and pressure
       
      1. Determines the number of moles of a gas at a given temperature and pressure
       
1.  “Application” is understood to mean a technical object, a system, a product or a process.

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