Chemistry - Secondary V Optional Program

Chemical equilibrium

Studying chemical equilibrium gives students the opportunity to acquire scientific and technical knowledge of phenomena and applications1 in which dynamic equilibrium is established between reactants and products. 

Over the course of their secondary school education, students have explored increasingly complex phenomena, problems and applications. They have acquired knowledge related to The Material World, The Living World, The Earth and Space and The Technological World. By using the experimental method, modelling and carrying out analysis, they are able to describe, understand and explain the laws and models governing the state of equilibrium of a chemical system. Students learn to apply this new knowledge in a variety of contexts to explain phenomena or make predictions. In this way, they acquire a better understanding of the dynamics of chemical equilibrium in the world around us and of the related applications.

Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.

Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.


Student reinvests knowledge.



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Secondary Cycle One
  • Describes the effect of heat on the degree of agitation of particles
  • Defines temperature as a measurement of the degree of agitation of particles
Secondary Cycle Two
Only those concepts specific to the Chemistry program are identified by a number.
Light blue shading indicates that the student acquired this knowledge in Secondary III or IV.
  • Defines pressure as the force exerted by particles when they collide with a constricting surface
  • Describes qualitatively the main factors that affect the pressure exerted by a fluid
Relationship between pressure and volume
  • Describes qualitatively the relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas
    (e.g. inhaling and exhaling, bicycle pump)
  • Describes the effect of variations in the quantity of solute or solvent on a solution's concentration
  • Determines the concentration of an aqueous solution (g/L, percentage, ppm, mol/L)
Concept of the mole
  • Defines the mole as the unit of measure of the amount of a substance
  • Expresses an amount of a substance in moles
  1. Factors that influence the state of equilibrium
      1. Explains qualitatively the state of dynamic equilibrium
    1. Temperature
      1. Explains the effect of a temperature change on a system’s state of equilibrium
    1. Pressure
      1. Explains the effect of a pressure change on a system’s state of equilibrium
    1. Concentration
      1. Explains the effect of a change in the concentration of a reactant or a product on a system’s state of equilibrium
  1. Le Chatelier’s Principle
    1. Predicts the direction of the shift in equilibrium of a system following a change in concentration, temperature or pressure
    1. Predicts the effects of a shift in equilibrium on the concentrations of reactants and products
Types of bonds (Ionic)
  • Defines an ionic bond as a bond resulting from the gain or loss of electrons
  • Defines Makes a schematic representation of an ionic bond
  • Identifies molecules that feature an ionic bond (e.g. NaCl, NH4OH)
  • Associates an ionic bond with an electrolytic substance
Strength of electrolytes
  • Qualitatively speaking, associates the strength of an electrolyte with its degree of dissociation
Electrical conductivity
  • Describes the mechanism that allows aqueous solutions to conduct electricity (electrolytic dissolution of a solute, formation of mobile ions)
Acid-base neutralization reaction
  • Gives examples of acid-base neutralization reactions (e.g. adding lime to neutralize the acidity of a lake)
  • Names the products formed during acid-base neutralization (salt and water)
  • Recognizes an acid-base neutralization from its equation
  • Determines the molecular formula of the salt produced by the neutralization of a given acid and a given base
pH scale
  • Describes the pH scale (acidity, alkalinity, neutrality, increasing and decreasing values)
  1. Equilibrium constant
    1. Acidity and alkalinity constants
      1. Writes as an algebraic expression the equilibrium constant for the dissociation of an acid or a base
      1. Experimentally determines the acidity or alkalinity constant of a system
      1. Associates the strength of acids and bases with the value of their acidity or alkalinity constant
    1. Solubility product constant
      1. Writes as an algebraic expression the equilibrium constant for the dissociation of various substances in water
      1. Calculates the solubility product constant of a substance
      1. Explains the use of various substances using their solubility product constant (e.g. rapidly dissolving salts have a high constant)
    1. Water ionization constant
      1. Writes the water ionization constant as an algebraic expression
      1. Calculates the molar concentration of hydronium and hydroxide ions, using the water ionization constant at 25°C
  1. Relationship between the pH and molar concentration of hydronium and hydroxide ions
    1. Describes the relationship between the pH and the molar concentration of hydronium and hydroxide ions
    1. Applies the relationship between the pH and the molar concentration of hydronium ions (pH = -log10 [H+])
1.  “Application” is understood to mean a technical object, a system, a product or a process.

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