English as a Second Language, Enriched Programs

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Strategies

In the Secondary Cycle One and Cycle Two EESL programs, the Strategies section consists of two categories: communication strategies and learning strategies (i.e. metacognitive, cognitive and social/affective). Strategies are specific thoughts, actions and techniques students use to communicate more efficiently, to facilitate learning and to transfer this learning to new situations.

At the elementary level, students started using communication and learning strategies. Throughout the secondary level, EESL students expand their inventory of strategies in a progressive way through teacher modelling, guided practice and independent use.

In Secondary Cycle One, EESL students use a variety of communication and learning strategies and reflect on their effectiveness. In Secondary Cycle Two, they manage their inventory of strategies effectively and with increasing autonomy. When managing strategies, EESL students identify the strategies, select which ones to use for a given task, use them appropriately, analyze their effectiveness and make the necessary adjustments.

Strategies contribute to the development of the three ESL competencies: Interacts orally in English, Reinvests understanding of texts and Writes and produces texts.

Strategies
Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.
Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.
 
Student reinvests knowledge.

E: The letter E shows links between the elementary- and secondary-level ESL programs.

Elementary

Secondary
Cycle
One
Cycle
Two
  1. Communication Strategies
    Strategies used to solve problems related to participating in and maintaining interaction.
  1 2 3 4 5
  1. List of communication strategies
  • 1.1.   Gesture
    1. Uses physical actions to convey or support messages
E          
  • 1.2.   Recast
    1. Restates what someone else has just said to verify comprehension
         
  • 1.3.   Rephrase
    1. Expresses in an alternative way
         
  • 1.4.   Stall for time
    1. Buys time to think out a response
E          
  • 1.5.   Substitute
    1. Uses less precise words or expressions to replace unknown ones
E        
  1. Self-regulation of communication strategies
    1. Uses various means to reflect on the effectiveness of a specific communication strategy (e.g. self-evaluation grids, class discussions, peer feedback)
E        
    1. Manages an inventory of communication strategies:
      • identifies the strategies
      • selects which ones to use for a given task
      • uses them appropriately
      • analyzes their effectiveness
      • makes necessary adjustments
         
  1. Metacognitive Strategies
    Strategies used to regulate learning.
  1 2 3 4 5
  1. List of metacognitive strategies
  • 1.1.   Direct attention
    1. Maintains attention during task by purposely avoiding distracters
E        
  • 1.2.   Pay selective attention
    1. Decides in advance to concentrate on particular details
E          
  • 1.3.   Plan
    1. Identifies the necessary elements to carry out a task
E    
  • 1.4.   Seek or create practice opportunities
    1. Finds situations to practise English outside of the ESL classroom
         
  • 1.5.   Self-evaluate
    1. Assesses own progress by reflecting on what has been learned and how
E    
  • 1.6.   Self-monitor
    1. Checks and corrects own language
E      
  • 1.7.   Set goals and objectives
    1. Sets personal short- and long-term goals for learning English
       
  1. Self-regulation of metacognitive strategies
    1. Uses various means to reflect on the effectiveness of a specific metacognitive strategy (e.g. self-evaluation grids, class discussions, peer feedback)
E    
    1. Manages an inventory of metacognitive strategies:
      • identifies the strategies
      • selects which ones to use for a given task
      • uses them appropriately
      • analyzes their effectiveness
      • makes necessary adjustments
     
  1. Cognitive Strategies
    Strategies used to manipulate and interact with the material to be learned.
  1 2 3 4 5
  1. List of cognitive strategies
  •   1.1. Activate prior knowledge
    1. Links new information to what is already known
E        
  •   1.2. Compare
    1. Notes significant similarities and differences
         
  •   1.3. Delay speaking
    1. Takes time to listen and speaks when ready
       
  •   1.4. Infer
    1. Makes intelligent guesses based on prior knowledge of cues such as context, cognates, expressions, visual clues, intonation
E        
  •   1.5. Practise
    1. Reuses language learned in the ESL class
E          
  •   1.6. Predict
    1. Makes hypotheses based on prior knowledge, topic, task at hand, text components or glancing through a text
E        
  •   1.7. Recombine
    1. Constructs a meaningful sentence by putting together known words and expressions in a new way
       
  •   1.8. Scan
    1. Looks for specific information in a text
E        
  •   1.9. Skim
    1. Reads through a text quickly to get a general overview
E        
  • 1.10. Take notes
    1. Writes down relevant information in an organized way (e.g. graphic organizers, guiding questions, prompts)
E      
  • 1.11. Transfer
    1. Uses a newly learned item in a new context
       
  • 1.12. Use semantic mapping
    1. Groups ideas in meaningful clusters to visually represent relationships between concepts
     
  1. Self-regulation of cognitive strategies
    1. Uses various means to reflect on the effectiveness of a specific cognitive strategy (e.g. self-evaluation grids, class discussions, peer feedback)
E    
    1. Manages an inventory of cognitive strategies:
      • identifies the strategies
      • selects which ones to use for a given task
      • uses them appropriately
      • analyzes their effectiveness
      • makes necessary adjustments
     
  1. Social/Affective Strategies
    Strategies used to learn with others and to control social and affective aspects of learning.
  1 2 3 4 5
  1. List of social/affective strategies
  • 1.1.   Ask for help, repetition, clarification, confirmation
    1. Requests assistance, reiteration, precision and reinforcement
E          
  • 1.2.   Ask questions
    1. Asks for advice/feedback or correction to support learning
         
  • 1.3.   Cooperate
    1. Works with others to achieve a common goal
E        
  • 1.4.   Develop cultural understanding
    1. Tries to communicate with someone who speaks English; learns about English-language cultures and practises English with others
       
  • 1.5.   Encourage and reward self and others
    1. Makes positive statements during a task and congratulates self and others upon completion
       
  • 1.6.   Lower anxiety
    1. Reduces stress by reminding self of goals, progress made and resources available
       
  • 1.7.   Take risks
    1. Pushes oneself to experiment with language and ideas without fear of making errors
E        
  1. Self-regulation of social/affective strategies
    1. Uses various means to reflect on the effectiveness of a specific social/affective strategy (e.g. self-evaluation grid, class discussions, peer feedback)
E    
    1. Manages an inventory of social/affective strategies:
      • identifies the strategies
      • selects which ones to use for a given task
      • uses them appropriately
      • analyzes their effectiveness
      • makes necessary adjustments
     

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