English as a Second Language, Enriched Programs

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Processes

In the Secondary Cycle One and Cycle Two EESL programs, the Processes section consists of the response, writing and production processes. The processes are frameworks that help students respond to, write and produce texts. Each process consists of a series of phases between which students are free to go back and forth to make adjustments.

Throughout the secondary level, EESL students use the phases of the processes and adapt them according to their needs and learning styles, and the task at hand. When using the processes, students cooperate and construct learning together. EESL students also reflect on their use of the processes and the quality of final products, both theirs and others, in order to regulate their development as learners.

A. Response Process

In the secondary-level EESL programs, the response process allows students to construct the meaning of spoken, written and visual texts, individually and with others. It has three phases: exploring the text, establishing a personal connection with the text and generalizing beyond the text.

Although there is no response process in the elementary-level ESL programs, students learned to construct the meaning of texts with teacher support, compared their own experience with the reality presented in texts and expressed their appreciation of texts. Throughout the secondary level, EESL students use the three phases of the response process in order to investigate a variety of popular, literary and information-based texts. They use various strategies, integrate others’ feedback and leave traces of their understanding by recording information and thoughts through different means (e.g.  annotations in a response journal, filling out a graphic organizer, making a semantic map).

Secondary Cycle One EESL students are initiated to the response process in order to understand both the literal meaning (i.e. explicit ideas) and underlying meaning (i.e. implied ideas and subtleties) of texts. Secondary Cycle Two EESL students use the response process with confidence and increasing autonomy to construct a deeper, more nuanced understanding of texts.

The response process contributes directly to the development of the competency Reinvests understanding of texts and supports the development of the competencies Interacts orally in English and Writes and produces texts.

Processes
Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.
Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.
 
Student reinvests knowledge.

E: The letter E shows links between the elementary- and secondary-level ESL programs.

Elementary

Secondary
Cycle
One
Cycle
Two
  1. Response Process
  1 2 3 4 5
  1. Exploring the Text Phase
  • 1.1.   Before listening, reading and viewing
    1. Uses strategies, guiding questions, prompts and knowledge of text components to prepare to respond to texts
       
    1. Uses knowledge of text features to prepare to respond to texts
   
  • 1.2.   While listening, reading and viewing
    1. Identifies important details of texts
         
    1. Determines overall message of texts
       
  • 1.3.   After listening, reading and viewing
    1. Answers guiding questions individually and expands on prompts that deal with the literal meaning of texts
         
    1. Answers guiding questions individually and expands on prompts that deal with the underlying meaning of texts
     
    1. Shares understanding of texts with others to verify, adjust and deepen understanding
       
  1. Establishing a Personal Connection With the Text Phase
    1. Answers guiding questions individually and expands on prompts to make personal connections with texts
       
    1. Shares personal connections to texts with others to deepen understanding
       
  1. Generalizing Beyond the Text Phase
    1. Answers guiding questions individually and expands on prompts that deal with issues from texts at a broader level
   
    1. Shares generalizations inspired by issues from texts with others to broaden world-view
   
  1. 1 - Reflecting on Use of Response Process
  1 2 3 4 5
    1. Uses various means to reflect on use of Response Process (e.g. self-evaluation grids, class discussions, peer feedback)
   

 

B. Writing Process

In the secondary-level EESL programs, the writing process allows students to express themselves in a coherent, organized manner when writing texts. It has five phases: preparing to write, writing the draft, revising, editing and publishing (optional phase).

At the elementary level, students were introduced to writing as a process and wrote a variety of well-structured texts using provided models. Throughout the secondary level, EESL students use the phases of the writing process in order to create a variety of popular, literary, and information-based texts. They use various strategies and rely on cooperation and discussion between the student, peers and the teacher. This process allows them to improve their writing skills and deliver an effective final product.

Secondary Cycle One EESL students are introduced to a formal writing process and use it to write a variety of personalized, well-structured texts. Before engaging in the writing process, Secondary Cycle Two EESL students deconstruct models of written texts by comparing similarities and differences and recognizing patterns in the internal text features (i.e. topic/information, language, text components) and the external text features (i.e. audience, purpose, culture). They are better able to use the writing process confidently to write more elaborate and effective texts that deal with increasingly complex issues and abstract ideas. Over time, EESL students use the writing process with increasing autonomy as they meet the requirements of the task.

The writing process contributes directly to the development of the competency Writes and produces texts and supports the development of the competencies Interacts orally in English and Reinvests understanding of texts.

Processes
Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.
Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.
 
Student reinvests knowledge.

E: The letter E shows links between the elementary- and secondary-level ESL programs.

Elementary

Secondary
Cycle
One
Cycle
Two
  1. Writing Process
  1 2 3 4 5
  1. Before engaging in the Writing Process
    1. Identifies text components in models of written texts
E      
    1. Deconstructs models of written texts
       
  1. Preparing to Write Phase
    1. Brainstorms topic and ideas with others
E      
    1. Researches topic
E      
    1. Considers purpose, audience and culture
E      
    1. Selects appropriate language (e.g. vocabulary, verb tenses, language register)
E      
    1. Constructs outline of text
E      
  1. Writing the Draft Phase
    1. Writes down ideas, opinions, thoughts and feelings while referring to outline
E      
    1. Incorporates targeted aspects of culture
   
    1. Adjusts outline
     
  1. Revising Phase
    1. Shares draft with others for feedback on content (e.g. organization, clarity, coherence)
E    
    1. Assesses how well draft achieves intended purpose and reaches audience
E    
    1. Assesses how well draft reflects cultural context
   
    1. Adds, substitutes, removes and rearranges ideas, words and sentences to improve draft
E    
  1. Editing Phase
    1. Shares draft with others for feedback on accuracy of grammatical structures and mechanics
E    
    1. Corrects errors found in draft
E    
    1. Writes final copy
E    
  1. Publishing Phase (optional)
    1. Shares polished copy with intended audience
E      
  1. 1 - Reflecting on Use of Writing Process
  1 2 3 4 5
    1. Uses various means to reflect on use of Writing Process and final version of written text (e.g.  self-evaluation grids, class discussions, peer feedback)
   

C. Production Process

In the secondary-level EESL programs, the production process allows students to produce media texts (e.g. multimedia presentations, podcasts, brochures). It has three phases: preproduction, production and postproduction. Through a variety of production experiences, students develop a more comprehensive understanding of the media from the perspective of both producer and critical consumer.

Although there is no production process in the elementary-level ESL programs, students acquired some knowledge of media texts by exploring cultural products. They also created media texts using provided models (e.g.  posters, advertisements, comic strips). Throughout the secondary level, the production process relies on cooperation and discussion as EESL students use various strategies, negotiate ideas and make decisions with the members of their production team. In some instances, the writing process may be used during the production process (e.g.  writing a script for a short film).

Secondary Cycle One EESL students are introduced to the production process and use it to create different media texts. Before engaging in the production process, Secondary Cycle Two EESL students deconstruct models of media texts by comparing similarities and differences and recognizing patterns in the internal text features (i.e. topic/information, language, text components) and external text features (i.e. audience, purpose, culture). Over time, EESL students use the production process with increasing autonomy as they meet the requirements of the task.

The production process contributes directly to the development of the competency Writes and produces texts and supports the development of the competencies Interacts orally in English and Reinvests understanding of texts.

Processes
Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.
Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.
 
Student reinvests knowledge.

E: The letter E shows links between the elementary- and secondary-level ESL programs.

Elementary

Secondary
Cycle
One
Cycle
Two
  1. Production Process
  1 2 3 4 5
  1. Before engaging in the Production Process
    1. Identifies text components in models of media texts
       
    1. Deconstructs models of media texts
       
  1. Preproduction Phase
    1. Brainstorms topic and ideas with others
       
    1. Researches topic
       
    1. Selects medium and corresponding media conventions (e.g. poster: catchy title, slogan, large photo)
       
    1. Selects appropriate language (e.g. vocabulary, verb tenses, language register)
       
    1. Targets purpose, audience and culture
       
    1. Writes a focus sentence
       
    1. Constructs outline of media text (e.g. storyboard)
       
    1. Incorporates targeted aspects of culture
   
    1. Validates ideas with others and makes adjustments according to feedback
       
  1. Production Phase
    1. Creates preliminary version of media text with team members
     
    1. Uses appropriate media conventions
     
    1. Validates preliminary version of media text with sample audience and makes adjustments according to feedback (i.e. edits and adds final touches)
     
  1. Postproduction Phase
    1. Shares final version of media text with intended audience
     
  1. 1 - Reflecting on Use of Production Process
  1 2 3 4 5
    1. Uses various means to reflect on use of Production Process and final version of media text (e.g. self-evaluation grids, class discussion, peer feedback)
   

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