English as a Second Language, Core Programs

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Processes

In the Secondary Cycle One and Cycle Two ESL programs, the Processes section consists of the response, writing and production processes. The processes are frameworks that help students respond to, write and produce texts. Each process consists of a series of recursive phases in which students are free to go back and forth between the phases to make adjustments. Throughout the secondary level, students cooperate and construct learning together in order to use and adapt the three processes according to their needs and learning styles, and the task at hand.

A. Response Process

In the secondary-level Core ESL programs, the response process allows students to construct meaning of spoken, written and visual texts, individually and with others. It has three phases: exploring the text, establishing a personal connection with the text and generalizing beyond the text. Students use different strategies to construct meaning of texts throughout the entire response process. They also integrate others’ feedback and leave traces of their understanding by recording information and thoughts through various means (e.g. annotations in a response journal, filling out a graphic organizer, making a semantic map).

Although there is no response process in the elementary-level ESL programs, students learned to construct meaning of texts with teacher support, compared their own experience with the reality presented in texts and expressed their appreciation of texts. Secondary Cycle One students are initiated to the response process in order to understand both the literal meaning (i.e. explicit ideas) and underlying meaning (i.e. implied ideas) of texts. Secondary Cycle Two students use the response process with more confidence to construct a deeper understanding of texts.

The response process contributes directly to the development of the competency Reinvests understanding of texts and supports the development of the competencies Interacts orally in English and Writes and produces texts.

Processes
Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.
Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.
 
Student reinvests knowledge.

E: The letter E shows links between the elementary- and secondary-level ESL programs.

Elementary

Secondary
Cycle
One
Cycle
Two
  1. Response Process
  1 2 3 4 5
  1. Exploring the Text Phase
  • 1.1.   Before listening, reading and viewing:
    1. Uses strategies, guiding questions, prompts and knowledge of text components to prepare to respond to texts
       
    1. Uses knowledge of text features to prepare to respond to texts
   
  • 1.2.   While listening, reading and viewing:
    1. Identifies important details of texts
       
    1. Determines overall message of texts
     
  • 1.3.   After listening, reading and viewing:
    1. Answers guiding questions individually and expands on prompts that deal with the literal meaning of texts
       
    1. Answers guiding questions individually and expands on prompts that deal with the underlying meaning of texts
   
    1. Shares understanding of texts with others to verify, adjust and deepen understanding
     
  1. Establishing a Personal Connection With the Text Phase
    1. Answers guiding questions individually and expands on prompts to make personal connections with texts
     
    1. Shares personal connections to texts with others to deepen understanding
     
  1. Generalizing Beyond the Text Phase
    1. Answers guiding questions individually and expands on prompts that deal with issues from texts at a broader level
   
    1. Shares generalizations inspired by issues from texts with others to deepen understanding
   

 

B. Writing Process

In the secondary-level Core ESL programs, the writing process allows students to express themselves in a coherent, organized manner when writing texts. It has five phases: preparing to write, writing the draft, revising, editing and publishing (optional phase). The writing process requires students to use various strategies, and relies on cooperation and discussion between the student, peers and the teacher.

At the elementary level, students were introduced to writing as a process and wrote a variety of well-structured texts using provided models. Secondary Cycle One students are initiated to the writing process in order to write a variety of personalized, well-structured texts. Secondary Cycle Two students are better able to use the writing process confidently in order to write more elaborate texts. Before engaging in the writing process, Secondary Cycle Two students deconstruct model written texts by comparing similarities and differences and recognizing patterns in the internal features (i.e. topic/information, language, text components) and external features (i.e. audience, purpose, culture).

The writing process contributes directly to the development of the competency Writes and produces texts and supports the development of the competencies Interacts orally in English and Reinvests understanding of texts.

Processes
Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.
Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.
 
Student reinvests knowledge.

E: The letter E shows links between the elementary- and secondary-level ESL programs.

Elementary

Secondary
Cycle
One
Cycle
Two
  1. Writing Process
  1 2 3 4 5
  1. Before engaging in the Writing Process :
    1. Identifies text components in model written texts
E      
    1. Deconstructs model written texts
       
  1. Preparing to Write Phase
    1. Brainstorms topic and ideas with others
E      
    1. Researches topic
E      
    1. Considers purpose and audience
E      
    1. Selects appropriate language (e.g. vocabulary, level of formality)
E      
    1. Constructs outline of text
E      
  1. Writing the Draft Phase
    1. Writes down ideas, opinions, thoughts and feelings while referring to outline
E      
    1. Adjusts outline
   
  1. Revising Phase
    1. Shares draft with others for feedback
E  
    1. Assesses how well draft achieves intended purpose and reaches audience
E  
    1. Adds, substitutes, removes and rearranges ideas, words and sentences to improve draft
E  
  1. Editing Phase
    1. Shares draft with others for feedback
E  
    1. Corrects grammar errors to improve draft
E  
    1. Writes final copy
E  
    1. Uses self-evaluation means to reflect on process and final version of written text (e.g. self-evaluation grid, class discussion)
E  
  1. Publishing Phase (optional)
    1. Shares polished copy with intended audience
E      

 

C. Production Process

In the secondary-level Core ESL programs, the production process allows students to produce media texts (e.g. computer presentations, podcasts, short films). It has three phases: preproduction, production and postproduction. Through a variety of production experiences, students develop a more comprehensive understanding of the media from the perspective of both producer and critical consumer. The production process relies on cooperation and discussion as students negotiate ideas and make decisions with the members of their production team, and requires the use of various strategies.

Although there is no production process in the elementary-level ESL programs, students acquired some knowledge of media texts by exploring cultural products. They also created media texts using provided models (e.g. posters, advertisements, comic strips). Secondary Cycle One students are initiated to the production process in order to create different media texts. Secondary Cycle Two students are better able to use the production process and choose the medium, tools, strategies and resources that best suit the task at hand. Before engaging in the production process, Secondary Cycle Two students deconstruct model media texts by comparing similarities and differences and recognizing patterns in the internal features (i.e. topic/information, language, text components) and external features (i.e. audience, purpose, culture). In some instances, the writing process may be used during the production process (e.g. writing a script for a short film).

The production process contributes directly to the development of the competency Writes and produces texts and supports the development of the competencies Interacts orally in English and Reinvests understanding of texts.

Processes
Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.
Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.
 
Student reinvests knowledge.

E: The letter E shows links between the elementary- and secondary-level ESL programs.

Elementary

Secondary
Cycle
One
Cycle
Two
  1. Production Process
  1 2 3 4 5
  1. Before engaging in the Production Process :
    1. Identifies text components in model media texts
       
    1. Deconstructs model media texts
       
  1. Preproduction Phase
    1. Plans media text with team members
       
    1. Brainstorms topic and ideas with others
       
    1. Researches topic
       
    1. Selects medium and corresponding media conventions (e.g. poster: catchy title, slogan, large photo)
       
    1. Selects appropriate language (e.g. vocabulary, level of formality)
       
    1. Targets purpose, audience and culture
       
    1. Writes a focus sentence
       
    1. Constructs outline of media text (e.g. storyboard)
       
    1. Validates ideas with others and makes adjustments according to feedback
       
  1. Production Phase
    1. Creates preliminary version of media text with team members
   
    1. Uses appropriate media conventions
   
    1. Validates preliminary version of media text with sample audience and makes adjustments according to feedback (i.e. edits and adds final touches)
   
  1. Postproduction Phase
    1. Shares final version of media text with intended audience
   
    1. Uses self-evaluation means to reflect on process and final version of media text (e.g. self-evaluation grid, class discussion)
   

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