Physical Education and Health

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Competency 3 – Adopts a healthy, active lifestyle


Knowledge (Concepts to be learned)

Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.

Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.


Student reinvests knowledge.

E: The letter E indicates that some of the concepts related to this topic were covered in elementary school.


  1. Physiology of the human body1
  1 2 3 4 5
  1. Names the main components of the systems involved in carrying out physical activities (cardiovascular, respiratory and muscular systems)
    (e.g. heart, lungs, abdominals)
  1. In simple terms or using a diagram, explains the main systems involved in physical activity
    (e.g. The cardiovascular system carries oxygen and nutrients to the muscles in accordance with the physical effort involved.)
  1. Explains the body’s response to exercise by making connections with the different systems
    (e.g. Perspiration helps regulate body temperature.)
  1. Components of heath-related fitness associated with the practice of physical activities2
  1 2 3 4 5
  1.  Cardiovascular endurance
    1. Names physical activities that improve cardiovascular endurance
      (e.g. jogging, spinning, cross-country skiing)
    1. Defines the concept of cardiovascular endurance
      (e.g. Cardiovascular endurance is the body’s ability to make the effort that is required in a moderately intense physical activity.)
    1. Describes a few training methods for improving cardiovascular endurance
      (e.g. Circuit training is a sequence of muscular and cardiovascular exercises.)
  1. Flexibility
    1. Names physical activities that help improve or maintain flexibility
      (e.g. yoga, tai-chi, stretching exercises)
    1. Defines the concept of flexibility
      (e.g. Flexibility is the ability to move a joint in accordance with its full range of motion without feeling any pain or stiffness.)
    1. Describes a few training methods for improving flexibility
      (e.g. Static stretches are carried out slowly and require that the position be held for at least 15 seconds.)
  1. Strength-endurance
    1. Names physical activities that help improve strength and muscular endurance
      (e.g. weight training in a gym, body-building with elastics, training with a Swiss ball)
    1. Defines the concepts of strength and muscular endurance
      (e.g. Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle or muscle group to contract submaximally in a repeated manner, usually involving 12 to 15 repetitions.)
    1. Describes a few training methods for improving strength and muscular endurance
      (e.g. Dynamic exercises involve lifting a submaximal load repeatedly and then lowering it.)
  1. Healthy, active lifestyle
  1 2 3 4 5
  1. Active lifestyle
    1. Explains the meaning of an active lifestyle
      (e.g. being physically active daily, taking the stairs, walking or bicycling to school)
    1. Explains the meaning of a sedentary lifestyle3
      (e.g. engaging in passive activities such as watching television, surfing the Internet and playing video games several hours a day)
    1. Names the psychological benefits of an active lifestyle
      (e.g. reduced fatigue and stress, sounder sleep, better concentration in class, pleasant emotions)
    1. Names the physical benefits of an active lifestyle
      (e.g. improved physical fitness, maintaining a balance between calorie intake and energy expenditure, increase in lean body mass, contribution to growth)
    1. Names the effects of a sedentary lifestyle
      (e.g. increased body weight, loss of muscle tone, increased risk of diabetes, isolation)
    1. Indicates strategies for developing or maintaining an active lifestyle
      (e.g. registering for a sports activity with friends, walking his/her dog, keeping an activity calendar, keeping track of his/her progress, using a pedometer)
  1. Nutrition and hydratation
    1. Determines his/her needs before, during or after physical activity according to activity type and duration, and weather conditions
      (e.g. eating foods rich in carbohydrates before an activity, drinking 250 mL of water every 15 minutes during moderately intense physical activity, drinking a glass of chocolate milk after aerobic exercise)
    1. Indicates strategies for making better food choices according to the intensity level of the physical activity
      (e.g. keeping granola bars in his/her sports bag, bringing along a bottle of water and juice, keeping a food journal)
  1. Personal hygiene
    1. Names the benefits of personal hygiene when doing physical activities
      (e.g. feeling of well-being, peer acceptance)
  1. Sleep
    1. Names the effects of a good quality of sleep on his/her physical and psychological well-being
      (e.g. physical recovery, better concentration, increased motivation)
    1. Indicates strategies for sleeping well
      (e.g. avoiding caffeine, going to bed at a regular time, using a relaxation technique)
  1. Stress prevention and management (positive or negative)4
    1. Names stressful situations that have an effect on his/her daily life
      (e.g. winning a competition, writing an exam)
    1. Names the physiological reactions associated with a stressful situation
      (e.g. increased heart rate, perspiration)
    1. Names the repercussions of poor stress management for his/her health and well-being
      (e.g. anxiety, fatigue, sleep disturbances, depression)
    1. Indicates strategies for relaxing
      (e.g. taking a warm bath, reading, exercising, using a relaxation technique)
  1. Effects of different substances on performance and training
    1. Names substances that affect performance in sports and training
      (e.g. caffeine, energy drink, creatine)
    1. Names the short- and long-term side effects (physical and psychological) of various substances
      (e.g. addiction, muscular hypertrophy, heart palpitations, sleep disturbances, increased stress)
    1. Indicates strategies for avoiding the consumption of harmful substances
      (e.g. getting information on the side effects of energy drinks, refusing them or not buying them)
  1. Excessive use of multimedia technology
    1. Names the effects of an excessive use of multimedia technology on his/her psychological or physical state
      (e.g. stiff muscles, isolation)
    1. Indicates strategies for managing the use of multimedia technology on a daily basis
      (e.g. 30 minutes at the computer = 30 minutes of physical activity)


1.  The main systems can be studied starting in Secondary Cycle One, since certain concepts were introduced in elementary school (e.g. the cardiovascular system). In addition, teachers are encouraged to make connections with the content of the Science and Technology course.
2.  In order to provide students with more concrete and meaningful learning tasks associated with achieving physical fitness, the teacher can suggest individual or group activities in which students are required to develop a personal program of physical or training activities (e.g.  setting a realistic objective, selecting pleasant physical activities, keeping track of his/her results and progress). Clearly, it is important to consider the needs, physical abilities, resources and motivation of students, who, at this age, are more concerned with their physical appearance and how others perceive them than with physical fitness.
3.  Because the period of adolescence is marked by an increasingly sedentary lifestyle among young people aged 12 to 17, concepts related to sedentary living have been added to this section. This also ties in with the content taught in elementary school.
4.  The program content on stress prevention and management can be introduced starting in Secondary Cycle One, since concepts related to this topic were taught in elementary school.

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