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Science and Technology


The strategies listed below are fundamental to the approaches used in science and technology. Whereas certain strategies apply at every step in the student’s work (e.g. using different types of reasoning, exchanging information), others are used at different stages (e.g. becoming aware of his or her previous representations, using different tools for recording information). It is recommended that students start using strategies in the first cycle of elementary school.

Exploration strategies
  • Studying a problem or a phenomenon from different points of view (e.g. social, environmental, historical, economic perspectives)
  • Distinguishing between the different types of information useful for solving the problem
  • Recalling similar problems that have already been solved
  • Becoming aware of his or her previous representations
  • Drawing a diagram for the problem or illustrating it
  • Formulating questions
  • Putting forward hypotheses (e.g. individually, as a team, as a class)
  • Exploring various ways of solving the problem
  • Anticipating the results of his or her approach
  • Imagining solutions to a problem in light of his or her explanations
  • Taking into account the constraints involved in solving a problem or making an object (e.g. specifications, available resources, time allotted)
  • Examining his or her mistakes in order to identify their source
  • Using different types of reasoning (e.g. induction, deduction, inference, comparison, classification)
  • Using empirical approaches (e.g. trial and error, analysis, exploration using one’s senses)
Strategies for recording, using and interpreting information
  • Using different sources of information (e.g. books, newspapers, Web sites, magazines, experts)
  • Validating sources of information
  • Using a variety of observational techniques and tools
  • Using technical design to illustrate a solution (e.g. diagrams, sketches, technical drawings)
  • Using different tools for recording information (e.g. diagrams, graphs, procedures, notebooks, logbook)
Communication strategies
  • Using different means of communication to propose explanations or solutions (e.g. oral presentation, written presentation, procedure)
  • Using tools to display information in tables and graphs or to draw a diagram
  • Organizing information for a presentation (e.g. tables, diagrams, graphs)
  • Exchanging information
  • Comparing different possible explanations for or solutions to a problem in order to assess them (e.g. full-group discussion)