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Science and Technology

Earth and Space

Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.

Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.


Student reinvests knowledge.

The statements in bold refer to the knowledge that should be emphasized.
  1. Matter
1 2 3 4 5 6
  1. Properties and characteristics of matter on Earth
    1. Compares the properties of different types of soil (e.g. composition, capacity to retain water, capacity to retain heat)
    1. Describes the various ways in which the quality of water, soil or air affects living things
    1. Distinguishes between a fossil (or a trace of a living thing) and a rock
    1. Distinguishes between a rock and a mineral
    1. Classifies rocks (presence of strata, size of the crystals) and minerals (colour, texture, lustre, hardness) according to their properties
  1. Organization of matter
    1. Describes the observable properties of crystals (colour, geometric patterns)
    1. Describes the main structures on the Earth’s surface (e.g. continents, oceans, ice caps, mountains, volcanoes)
  1. Transformation of matter
    1. Describes different types of precipitation (rain, snow, hail, freezing rain)
    1. Identifies natural sources of fresh water (brooks, lakes, rivers) and natural sources of salt water (seas, oceans)
    1. Explains the water cycle (evaporation, condensation, precipitation, runoff and infiltration)
    1. Describes certain natural phenomena (e.g. erosion, lightning, tornado, hurricane)
    1. Describes the impact of certain natural phenomena on the environment or on the well-being of individuals
  1. Energy
1 2 3 4 5 6
  1. Sources of energy
    1. Explains that the sun is the main source of energy on Earth
    1. Identifies natural sources of energy (sun, moving water, wind)
    1. Identifies fossil fuel-based energy (e.g. oil, coal, natural gas)
  1. Transmission of energy
    1. Describes methods for transmitting thermal energy (e.g. radiation, convection, conduction)
  1. Transformation of energy
    1. Describes what renewable energy is
    1. Explains that sunlight, moving water and wind are renewable sources of energy
    1. Describes the methods invented by humans to transform renewable sources of energy into electricity (hydroelectric dam, wind turbine, solar panels)
    1. Describes what nonrenewable energy is
    1. Explains that fossil fuels are nonrenewable sources of energy
    1. Names fuels derived from petroleum (e.g. gasoline, propane, butane, fuel oil, natural gas)
  1. Forces and motion
1 2 3 4 5 6
  1. Rotation of the Earth
    1. Associates the cycle of day and night with the rotation of the Earth
  1. The tides
    1. Describes the ebb and flow of the tides (rise and fall of sea levels)
  1. Systems and interaction
1 2 3 4 5 6
  1. Light and shadow
    1. Describes the influence of the apparent position of the sun on the length of shadows
  1. System involving the sun, the Earth and the moon
    1. Associates the sun with the idea of a star, the Earth with the idea of a planet and the moon with the idea a natural satellite
    1. Describes the rotational and revolutionary motion of the Earth and the moon
    1. Illustrates the phases of the lunar cycle (full moon, new moon, first and last quarters)
    1. Illustrates the formation of eclipses (lunar, solar)
  1. Solar system
    1. Recognizes the main components of the solar system (sun, planets, natural satellites)
    1. Describes the characteristics of the main components of the solar system
      (e.g. composition, size, orbit, temperature)
  1. Seasons
    1. Describes the changes to the environment throughout the seasons (temperature, amount of daylight, type of precipitation)
    1. Explains the sensations experienced (hot, cold, comfortable) with regard to temperature measurements
    1. Associates the changing of the seasons with the revolution and tilt of the Earth
  1. Stars and the Galaxies
    1. Recognizes the stars and the constellations on a map of the stars
    1. Distinguishes between stars, constellations and galaxies
  1. Meteorological systems and climates
    1. Makes connections between weather conditions and the types of clouds in the sky
    1. Associates the average amount of precipitation with the climate of a region (dry, humid)
    1. Associates the average temperature with the climate of a region (polar, cold, temperate, mild, hot)
  1. Technologies related to the Earth, the atmosphere and outer space
    1. Recognizes the influence and the impact of technologies related to the Earth, the atmosphere and outer space on people’s way of life and surroundings (e.g. prospecting equipment, meteorological instruments, seismograph, telescope, satellite, space station)
  1. Techniques and instrumentation
1 2 3 4 5 6
  1. Use of simple observational instruments
    1. Appropriately uses simple observational instruments (e.g. magnifying glass, binoculars)
  1. Use of simple measuring instruments
    1. Appropriately uses simple measuring instruments (e.g. rulers, dropper, graduated cylinder, balance, thermometer, wind vane, barometer, anemometer, hygrometer)
  1. Design and manufacture of measuring instruments and prototypes
    1. Designs and manufactures measuring instruments and prototypes1
  1. Appropriate language
1 2 3 4 5 6
  1. Terminology related to an understanding of the Earth and the universe
    1. Appropriately uses terminology related to an understanding of the Earth and the universe
    1. Distinguishes between the meaning of a term used in a scientific or technological context and its meaning in everyday language (e.g. space, revolution)
  1. Conventions and types of representations specific to the concepts studied
    1. Communicates using appropriate types of representations that reflect the rules and conventions of science and technology (e.g. symbols, graphs, tables, drawings, sketches)
1.  Refer to the statements under Design and manufacture of instruments, tools, machines, structures, devices, models and simple electric circuits in the Material World section.

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