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Throughout elementary school, students participate in conducting surveys to answer questions and draw conclusions. They learn to formulate different types of questions, determine categories or answer choices, plan and carry out data collection and organize data in tables. To develop statistical thinking, students are thus introduced to descriptive statistics, which allow them to summarize raw data in a clear and reliable (rigorous) way.

By participating in the activities suggested, students will learn to display data using tables, horizontal and vertical bar graphs, pictographs or broken-line graphs, depending on the type of data used. They will also learn to interpret data by observing its distribution (e.g. range, centre, groupings) or by comparing data in a given table or graph. They will ask themselves questions as they compare different questions, samples chosen, the data obtained and their different representations. They will also have the opportunity to interpret circle graphs1 and develop an understanding of the arithmetic mean in order to be able to calculate it.

The table below presents the learning content associated with statistics. The concepts and processes targeted will provide students with increasingly complex tools that will help them develop and use all three mathematics competencies.

Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.

Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.


Student reinvests knowledge.

1 2 3 4 5 6
  1. Formulates questions for a survey (based on age-appropriate topics, students’ language level, etc.)
  1. Collects, describes and organizes data (classifies or categorizes) using tables
  1. Interprets data using
    1. a table, a bar graph and a pictograph
    1. a table, a bar graph, a pictograph and a broken-line graph
    1. a table, a bar graph, a pictograph, a broken-line graph and a circle graph
  1. Displays data using
    1. a table, a bar graph and a pictograph
    1. a table, a bar graph, a pictograph and a broken-line graph
  1. Understands and calculates the arithmetic mean
    Survey, table
    Bar graph, pictograph
    Broken-line graph
    Circle graph, arithmetic mean
1.  Students are not expected to construct circle graphs, but rather to interpret them using the concepts of fraction and percentage.

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