Before they enter preschool, children explore the shapes of objects in their surroundings and begin to understand basic topological concepts such as insideoutside, abovebelow; they also acquire the rudiments of spatial sense. In preschool, they begin to organize space and establish relationships between objects by comparing, classifying and grouping them.
Throughout elementary school, by participating in activities and manipulating objects, students acquire the vocabulary of geometry and learn to get their bearings in space, identify plane figures and solids, describe categories of figures and observe their properties. Geometry in elementary school focuses on twodimensional (plane) and threedimensional figures and on key concepts, such as the ability to locate objects in space and observe their geometric and topological properties. Knowledge of vocabulary is not enough; the words must be closely tied to precise concepts such as shape, similarity, dissimilarity, congruency and symmetry. Thus, the use of varied activities and a wide range of objects is essential for students to develop spatial sense and geometric thought. This will allow students to progress from the concrete to the abstract, first by manipulating and observing objects, then by making various representations, and finally by creating mental images of figures and their properties.
The ability to discern and recognize the properties of a geometric object or a category of objects must be developed before students can learn about the relationships among elements in a figure or among distinct figures. It is also required in order to develop the ability to identify new properties and use known or new properties in problem solving.
The table below presents the learning content associated with geometry. The concepts and processes targeted will provide students with increasingly complex tools that will help them develop and use all three mathematics competencies.
Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.
Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.
Student reinvests knowledge. 
Elementary  

Cycle One 
Cycle Two 
Cycle Three 


1  2  3  4  5  6 












Reference system, plane, Cartesian plane, ordered pair 

Writing ordered pairs (a, b) 


1  2  3  4  5  6 






Solid, base of a solid, face, flat surface, curved surface Sphere, cone, cube, cylinder, prism, pyramid 

















Vertex, edge, net of a solid 



Polyhedron, convex polyhedron 


1  2  3  4  5  6 






Straight line, closed straight line, curved line Plane figure, side Square, circle, rectangle, triangle, rhombus 









Quadrilateral, parallelogram, trapezoid, polygon Convex polygon, nonconvex polygon, segment Is parallel to . . ; is perpendicular to . . . Symbols //, ⊥ 







Equilateral triangles, isosceles triangle, right triangle, scalene triangle Circle, central angle, diameter, radius, circumference 


1  2  3  4  5  6 










Frieze pattern, tesselation Reflection, line of reflection, symmetric figure 

Translation, translation arrow 