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Geography, History and Citizenship Education

Techniques specific to geography and history

Teachers introduce students to techniques specific to geography and history. They propose learning and evaluation situations that enable students to use maps, atlases and time lines. Using a globe and a wall map helps students locate things in space. Using images, tables and diagrams (histograms, double-entry tables, bar or circle graphs, climate charts) enables them to find information about the societies and territories studied. The documents used should be varied and adapted to the students’ abilities.


Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.

Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.


Student reinvests knowledge.

Cycle One Cycle Two Cycle Three
1 2 3 4 5 6
  1. Interprets simple maps
    1. Reads the title
    1. Decodes the legend
    1. Reads the scale
    1. Uses the points of the compass
    1. Uses spatial reference points
  1. Constructs a time line
    1. Selects information
    1. Calculates the amount of time to be represented
    1. Determines what unit of measure to use
    1. Draws an axis
    1. Divides the time line into segments depending on the scale chosen
    1. Indicates information
    1. Indicates a title
  1. Interprets a time line
    1. Reads the title
    1. Decodes the chronological scale
    1. Uses chronological reference points
    1. Finds information: places, actors, circumstances
  1. Interprets illustrated documents
    (e.g. illustrations, posters, murals, paintings)
    1. Determines the nature of the document
    1. Locates the source and date
    1. Reads the title
    1. Determines the main subject
    1. Determines places, actors, circumstances
  1. Interprets tables and diagrams
    1. Reads the title
    1. Decodes the legend
    1. Locates the scale
    1. Identifies the nature of the information
    1. Finds data
  1. Constructing tables and diagrams
    1. Selects information
    1. Indicates and naming each entry
    1. Establishes the scale
    1. Indicates the legend
    1. Indicates the data
    1. Indicates a title

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