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Geography, History and Citizenship Education

Researching and working with information in geography and history

Teachers show students how to research and work with information in geography and history. Starting in Cycle One, they model certain elements of the process. In Cycles Two and Three, they introduce students to all of the steps in the process.


Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.

Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.


Student reinvests knowledge.

Cycle One Cycle Two Cycle Three
1 2 3 4 5 6
  1. Learns about a problem
    1. Defines the problem
    1. Draws on previous learning
    1. Considers research strategies that will lead to a solution
  1. Asks questions
    1. Spontaneously frames questions
    1. Organizes question in categories
    1. Selects useful questions
  1. Plans research
    1. Makes a research plan
    1. Locates sources of information
    1. Chooses or creates data-gathering tools
  1. Gathers and processes information
    1. Collects data
    1. Sorts data into categories
    1. Distinguishes between facts and opinions
    1. Criticizes data
    1. Distinguishes between relevant and irrelevant documents
    1. Compares data
  1. Organizes information
    1. Chooses a way to communicate information
    1. Makes a plan
    1. Identifies the essential elements of information
    1. Arranges data in tables, lists, diagrams or text
    1. Uses supporting documents
    1. Indicates sources
  1. Communicates the results of research
    1. Chooses appropriate language
    1. Uses various media
    1. Presents a production

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