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Geography, History and Citizenship Education

Knowledge related to the organization of a society in its territory

In Cycle One, students become familiar with the concept of organization. Based on their knowledge of their environment, the people they know and the groups they belong to, they continue the process of developing their representation of space, time and society, which they began in preschool. In Cycles Two and Three, they begin to understand the organization of a society in its territory. They acquire knowledge related to the society’s location in space and time; its demographic, cultural, economic and political characteristics; its adaptation to the territory, with its assets and limitations; the people, groups and events that have marked its history; and the traces it has left on Québec society today.

Legend1

Student constructs knowledge with teacher guidance.

Student applies knowledge by the end of the school year.

 

Student reinvests knowledge.

Elementary
Cycle One Cycle Two Cycle Three
  1. Today
    First representation of a society (Cycle One)
1 2 3 4 5 6
  1. Location in space and time2
    1. Orients himself/herself in space, a simple drawing, an illustration or a scale model (e.g. my bicycle is in front of the garage, my swing is to the left of the tree, the post office is north of the playground)
       
    1. Orients himself/herself in space using the points of the compass (e.g. my house is south of the lake, my swing is west of the tree)
       
    1. Orients himself/herself in time: calendar, day, month, year
       
    1. Situates events in his/her life and that of friends and family on a graduated time line (e.g. my birth, my first day of school, a trip, my parents’ births, the death of a friend or relative)
       
    1. Indicates physical traits characteristic of different ages (e.g. a baby has no teeth, grandparents sometimes have white hair)
       
    1. Indicates activities associated with different ages (e.g. children go to school, adults can drive)
       
  1. Human elements
  • 2.1.   Demographic situation
    1. Names groups he/she belongs to (e.g. family, friends, sports teams, class)
       
    1. Describes the composition of the groups he/she belongs to (e.g. my soccer team is made up of boys and girls and an adult: the coach; my class is made up of boys and girls and an adult: the teacher)
       
    1. Indicates the number of members in the groups he/she belongs to (e.g. there are 10 players on my soccer team, there are 24 students in my class)
       
  • 2.2.   Cultural situation
    1. Names the language(s) spoken in his/her environment (e.g. French, English, Italian)
       
    1. Names the religion(s) practised in his/her environment (e.g. Catholicism, Protestantism)
       
    1. Names artistic expressions (e.g. painting, sculpture)
       
    1. Names everyday objects (e.g. toys, CDs, iron, computer, bicycle, car)
       
  • 2.3.   Economic situation
    1. Names elements of the landscape related to economic activities (e.g. farm, factory, bank, port)
       
    1. Names needs satisfied by economic activities (e.g. food, entertainment)
       
    1. Names means of transportation and transportation routes (e.g. car, train, airplane; highway, road, railway)
       
  • 2.4.   Political situation
    1. Names institutions (e.g. city hall, municipal council)
       
    1. Indicates rules of order for groups he/she belongs to (e.g. in class students must raise their hand before they speak)
       
  1. Natural elements
    1. Names types of relief (e.g. plain, valley, plateau, hill, mountain chain)
       
    1. Names elements of climate (e.g. precipitation, temperature)
       
    1. Names bodies of water (e.g. river, lake)
       
    1. Names natural resources (e.g. forest, water, fertile soil, minerals)
       
  1. People, groups and events
    1. Names people in his/her environment (e.g. father, friend, teacher, coach)
       
    1. Describes the roles of different members of the groups he/she belongs to (e.g. the teacher transmits knowledge, the captain of my team encourages us)
       
    1. Names events in his/her life and that of friends and family (e.g. birth, first day of school, move, parents’ births, death of a friend or relative)
       
  1. Iroquoian society around 1500
1 2 3 4 5 6
  1. Location of the society in space and time
    1. Locates on a map the territory occupied by Iroquoian society: St. Lawrence and Great Lakes lowlands
       
    1. Locates on a graduated time line events and people related to the history of the society (e.g. Columbus’s discovery of America, Cabot’s voyages, Cartier’s voyages, Donnacona)
       
  1. Elements of the society that affect the organization of the territory
  • 2.1.   Demographic situation
    1. Describes the distribution of the population: along the St. Lawrence and in the Great Lakes region
       
    1. Indicates the way of life: sedentary
       
    1. Gives the approximate number of inhabitants
       
  • 2.2.   Cultural situation
    1. Names a spiritual element: animism
       
    1. Names artistic expressions (pottery, basket weaving)
       
    1. Describes elements of everyday life: food, clothing, entertainment, customs
       
  • 2.3.   Economic situation
    1. Names economic activities: agriculture, hunting, fishing, gathering, barter
       
    1. Names means of transportation: canoe, snowshoes
       
    1. Indicates transportation routes: waterways, forest trails
       
  • 2.4.   Political situation
    1. Indicates means of selecting leaders: women elders appointed chiefs
       
    1. Indicates means of decision making: council
       
  1. Assets and limitations of the territory
    1. Indicates assets related to the relief (e.g. plains were good for farming)
       
    1. Indicates assets and limitations related to climate (e.g. the temperature and rain in the summer were good for farming; the temperature and snow in the winter limited activities and travel)
       
    1. Indicates assets and limitations related to bodies of water (e.g. rivers and lakes facilitated access to the territory; rapids limited travel)
       
    1. Explains why resources were assets (e.g. forests provided construction materials for longhouses and canoes; animals were used for food)
       
  1. Influence of people on social and territorial organization
    1. Names a group that played a role in selecting leaders: women elders
       
  1. Elements of continuity with the present
    1. Indicates traces left by Iroquoian society: place names, artefacts, sites
       
  1. French society in New France around 1645
1 2 3 4 5 6
  1. Location of the society in space and time
    1. Locates on a map the territory that belonged to France in North America: the St. Lawrence Valley and the Great Lakes region
       
    1. Locates on a map the territory occupied by French society in New France: the St. Lawrence Valley
       
    1. Situates on a graduated time line events and people related to the history of the society (e.g. founding of Québec City, Trois-Rivières and Montréal; explorations and explorers; Champlain, Laviolette, Maisonneuve)
       
  1. Elements of the society that affect the organization of the territory
  • 2.1.   Demographic situation
    1. Describes the distribution of the population: concentrated in the St. Lawrence Valley
       
    1. Describes the composition of the population: Native peoples, French
       
    1. Gives the approximate number of inhabitants
       
  • 2.2.   Cultural situation
    1. Names languages spoken: Native languages, French
       
    1. Names religions practised: Native spiritualities, Catholicism
       
    1. Names artistic expressions (e.g. painting, architecture, embroidery)
       
    1. Describes elements of everyday life: food, clothing, entertainment, customs
       
  • 2.3.   Economic situation
    1. Names economic activities: fur trade, agriculture, hunting and fishing
       
    1. Names means of transportation: canoe, boat, cart
       
    1. Indicates transportation routes: waterways, forest trails, early roads
       
  • 2.4.   Political situation
    1. Indicates the means of decision making: made unilaterally by the king of France
       
    1. Indicates the means of selecting leaders: the king appointed the governor and the company
       
    1. Names an institution: the Company of One Hundred Associates
       
    1. Indicates one obligation and one privilege of the Company: the Company was obliged to populate the colony; the Company was given the monopoly of the fur trade
       
  1. Assets and limitations of the territory
    1. Indicates assets related to the relief (e.g. plains were good for farming)
       
    1. Indicates assets and limitations related to climate (e.g. the temperature and rain in the summer were good for farming; the temperature and snow in the winter limited activities and travel)
       
    1. Indicates assets and limitations related to bodies of water (e.g. confluences favoured the establishment of trading posts; rapids limited travel)
       
    1. Explains why resources were assets (e.g. the abundance of beavers enabled the development of the fur trade)
       
  1. Influence of people and events on social and territorial organization
    1. Names important people: Champlain, Laviolette, Maisonneuve
       
    1. Names groups that played a role: Native peoples, religious groups (e.g. Jesuits), coureurs de bois, companies
       
    1. Indicates events that marked society: first settlements, Iroquois wars, explorations, creation of trading posts
       
  1. Elements of continuity with the present
    1. Indicates traces left by the society (e.g. language, religion, customs and traditions, place names)
       
  1.  Canadian society in New France around 1745
1 2 3 4 5 6
  1. Location of the society in space and time
    1. Locates on a map the territory that belonged to France in North America: the St. Lawrence and Great Lakes lowlands, Ohio and Mississippi valleys to Louisiana
       
    1. Locates on a map the territory occupied by Canadian society in New France: the St. Lawrence Valley
       
    1. Situates on a graduated time line events and people related to the history of the society (e.g. Great Peace of Montréal, intendancy of Gilles Hocquart)
       
  1. Elements of the society that affect the organization of the territory
  • 2.1.   Demographic situation
    1. Describes the distribution of the population: concentrated in the St. Lawrence Valley, in particular at Québec City, Trois-Rivières and Montréal
       
    1. Describes the composition of the population: Native peoples, French, Canadians
       
    1. Gives the approximate number of inhabitants
       
  • 2.2.   Cultural situation
    1. Names languages spoken: Native languages, French
       
    1. Names the religions practised: Native spiritualities, Catholicism
       
    1. Names artistic expressions (e.g. sculpture, painting, working gold, music)
       
    1. Describes elements of everyday life: food, clothing, entertainment, customs
       
  • 2.3.   Economic situation
    1. Names economic activities (e.g. agriculture, animal husbandry, early industries, trade and in particular the fur trade)
       
    1. Names means of transportation (e.g. canoe, boat, cart)
       
    1. Indicates transportation routes: waterways, forest paths, Chemin du Roy
       
  • 2.4.   Political situation
    1. Indicates the means of decision making: made unilaterally by the king of France or his representative in the colony (the governor)
       
    1. Indicates the means of selecting leaders: appointed by the king of France
       
    1. Indicates the roles of the leaders in the colony: governor (e.g. army, Native relations), intendant (e.g. finance, justice)
       
    1. Names an institution: the Sovereign Council
       
  1. Assets and limitations of the territory
    1. Indicates assets related to the relief (e.g. the Appalachians were a natural defence against the English threat; the St. Lawrence Valley facilitated settlement of the territory)
       
    1. Indicates assets and limitations related to climate (e.g. the temperature and rain in the summer were good for farming; the temperature and snow in the winter limited activities and travel)
       
    1. Indicates assets and limitations related to bodies of water (e.g. the rivers and lakes facilitated access to the territory; the rapids limited travel)
       
    1. Explains why resources were assets (e.g. forests provided oak for shipbuilding; the presence of iron supplied the Forges du Saint-Maurice)
       
  1. Influence of people and events on social and territorial organization
    1. Names important people: Talon, Frontenac, Msgr. de Laval
       
    1. Names groups that played a role (e.g. colonists, filles du Roy, coureurs de bois, military)
       
    1. Indicates events that marked society: establishment of cottage industries, seigneurial system, triangular trade
       
  1. Elements of continuity with the present
    1. Indicates traces left by the society (e.g. land divided into rectangular strips along waterways)
       
  1. Canadian society around 1820
1 2 3 4 5 6
  1. Location of the society in space and time
    1. Locates on maps with different scales the territory occupied by Canadian society: St. Lawrence and Great Lakes lowlands
       
    1. Situates, on graduated time lines with different scales, events and people related to the history of the society (e.g. the first governors: Murray, Carleton; the arrival of the Loyalists; the creation of the House of Assembly; Papineau)
       
  1. Elements of the society that affect the organization of the territory
  • 2.1.   Demographic situation
    1. Describes the distribution of the population: concentrated along the St. Lawrence and in the Great Lakes region
       
    1. Describes the composition of the population: Native peoples, Canadians, English
       
    1. Gives the approximate number of inhabitants
       
  • 2.2.   Cultural situation
    1. Names the main languages spoken: French, English
       
    1. Names the main religions practised: Native spiritualities, Catholicism, Protestantism
       
    1. Names artistic expressions (e.g. painting, literature, architecture)
       
    1. Describes elements of everyday life: food, clothing, entertainment, customs
       
  • 2.3.   Economic situation
    1. Names economic activities (e.g. agriculture, animal husbandry, trade and in particular the lumber trade)
       
    1. Names means of transportation: land or sea, depending on the season
       
    1. Indicates transportation routes (e.g. waterways, roads, canals)
       
  • 2.4.   Political situation
    1. Indicates the means of selecting leaders: the king of England appointed the governor and the people elected representatives
       
    1. Indicates the means of decision making: the representatives passed laws and the governor approved or vetoed them
       
    1. Names an institution: the House of Assembly
       
  1. Assets and limitations of the territory
    1. Indicates assets related to the relief (e.g. plains were good for farming)
       
    1. Indicates assets and limitations of bodies of water (e.g. rivers made it possible to transport logs and provided hydraulic energy for the mills; it was necessary to build canals to cross the rapids)
       
    1. Explains why resources were assets (e.g. the forests satisfied the mother country’s lumber needs)
       
  1. Influence of people and events on social and territorial organization
    1. Names important people (e.g. Murray, Carleton, Papineau)
       
    1. Names groups who played a role (e.g. English merchants, Loyalists, Patriots)
       
    1. Indicates events that marked the society (e.g. the Conquest, parliamentary government, Napoleonic Wars, opening of lumber camps)
       
  1. Elements of continuity with the present
    1. Indicates traces left by the society (e.g. parliamentary government, canals, townships)
       
  1.  Québec society around 1905
1 2 3 4 5 6
  1. Location of the society in space and time
    1. Locates on maps with different scales the territory occupied by Québec society: borders of Québec
       
    1. Situates, on graduated time lines with different scales, events and people related to the history of the society (e.g. Canadian Confederation, Honoré Mercier)
       
  1. Elements of the society that affect the organization of the territory
  • 2.1.   Demographic situation
    1. Describes the distribution of the population: along the St. Lawrence and in the regions
       
    1. Describes the composition of the population: Native peoples, French Canadians, English Canadians and European immigrants
       
    1. Gives the approximate number of inhabitants
       
  • 2.2.   Cultural situation
    1. Names the main languages spoken: French, English
       
    1. Names the main religions practised: Native spiritualities, Catholicism, Protestantism
       
    1. Names artistic expressions (e.g. painting, architecture, music, literature)
       
    1. Describes elements of everyday life: food, clothing, entertainment, customs
       
  • 2.3.   Economic situation
    1. Names economic activities: agriculture, animal husbandry, industry, trade
       
    1. Names means of transportation: land or sea, depending on the season
       
    1. Indicates transportation routes: waterways, roads, railways, canals
       
  • 2.4.   Political situation
    1. Indicates the means of selecting leaders: the people elected representatives
       
    1. Indicates the means of decision making: representatives passed laws
       
    1. Names an institution: the Legislative Assembly
       
  1. Assets and limitations of the territory
    1. Indicates assets related to the relief (e.g. differences in level made it possible to build hydroelectric dams)
       
    1. Indicates assets related to bodies of water (e.g. the fast flow of the rivers facilitated the production of electricity needed to supply the pulp and paper and aluminum industries)
       
    1. Explains why resources were assets (e.g. the coniferous forests made it possible to develop a pulp and paper industry)
       
  1. Influence of people and events on social and territorial organization
    1. Names important people (e.g. John A. MacDonald, Honoré Mercier, Wilfrid Laurier, Thérèse Casgrain)
       
    1. Names groups that played a role (e.g. colonists, suffragettes, unions)
       
    1. Indicates events that marked society: Canadian Confederation, industrialization, urbanization, unionization, electrification, colonization
       
  1. Elements of continuity with the present
    1. Indicates traces left by the society: electrification, unionization
       
  1. Québec society around 1980
1 2 3 4 5 6
  1. Location of the society in space and time
    1. Locates on maps with different scales the territory occupied by Québec society: borders of Québec
       
    1. Situates, on graduated time lines with different scales, events and people related to the history of the society (e.g. election of Jean Lesage, election of Robert Bourassa (1970), construction of the James Bay hydroelectric power stations, election of René Lévesque, agricultural zoning, adoption of the Charter of the French Language)
       
  1. Elements of the society that affect the organization of the territory
  • 2.1.   Demographic situation
    1. Describes the distribution of the population: along the St. Lawrence and in the regions
       
    1. Describes the composition of the population: Native peoples (Amerindian and Inuit), people of French and British descent, people of other origins
       
    1. Gives the approximate number of inhabitants
       
  • 2.2.   Cultural situation
    1. Names the main languages spoken: French, English
       
    1. Names the main religions practised (e.g. Catholicism, Protestantism)
       
    1. Names artistic expressions (e.g. painting, architecture, music, dance, literature)
       
    1. Describes elements of everyday life: food, clothing, entertainment, customs
       
  • 2.3.   Economic situation
    1. Names economic activities: agriculture, animal husbandry, industry, trade
       
    1. Names means of transportation: land, sea, air
       
    1. Indicates transportation routes: highways, railways, seaway, airways
       
  • 2.4.   Political situation
    1. Indicates the means of selecting leaders: the people elected representatives
       
    1. Indicates the means of decision making: the representatives passed laws
       
    1. Names a political institution: the National Assembly
       
  1. Assets and limitations of the territory
    1. Indicates assets related to the relief (e.g. the differences in level made it possible to build hydroelectric power stations in the James Bay region)
       
    1. Indicates assets related to bodies of water (e.g. the fast flow of the rivers facilitated the production of electricity for local consumption and export)
       
    1. Explains why resources were assets (e.g. the forests provided lumber for export)
       
  1. Influence of people and events on social and territorial organization
    1. Names important people: Jean Lesage, Robert Bourassa, René Lévesque
       
    1. Indicates events that marked society: the Quiet Revolution, construction of hydroelectric power stations, St. Lawrence Seaway, agricultural zoning
       
  1. Elements of continuity with the present
    1. Indicates traces left by the society: health insurance, comprehensive secondary schools, CEGEPs
       
1.  Presenting societies in chronological fashion allows students to acquire knowledge specific to each type of social and territorial organization studied. This knowledge is, for the most part, applied in the same cycle. Students will use some of this knowledge when studying changes or differences. That is why this document, unlike similar documents in other subjects, does not contain indications concerning the reinvestment of knowledge.
2.  Locate societies in space and time using the techniques specific to geography and history.

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